Reliable devices are still awaited that consistently produce long-term symptomatic relief with correction of pathologic reflux. However, newer laparoscopically placed devices hold promise in achieving equivalent symptomatic
relief with fewer this website side effects. Clinical trials are still forthcoming. Sami R. Achem and Kenneth R. DeVault Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common disorder in all patients but a particular problem in the elderly, for whom the disease often presents with advanced mucosal damage and other complications. Symptoms are also not as reliable an indication of disease severity in older patients. Likewise, therapy is more difficult because of potential side effects and drug interactions. Paul Chang and Frank Friedenberg Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that obesity is an important risk factor for the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There is also accumulating data that obesity is associated with complications related to longstanding reflux such as erosive esophagitis, Barrett esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Central obesity, rather than body mass index, appears to be more closely associated with these complications. Surgical data are confounded by the concomitant repair of prevalent hiatal hernias in many patients. Index 175 “
“This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article
Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article was retracted at the request of the authors Naoki Agetsuma, Ryosuke Koda, Riyou Tsujino and Yoshimi Agetsuma-Yanagihara. The authors are sorry to report that they found a bug in SB203580 cell line Methane monooxygenase statistical software “R” used in their article published in Mammalian Biology. They would like to withdraw the paper. The authors found a bug of the “dredge” function in “MuMIn” package of statistical software “R” (R Development Core Team, 2012) they used. The “dredge” function generates all possible mathematical models such
as generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) using all combination of variables, and supports model selection procedures by AIC. The “R” prepares several GLMM functions such as “glmmML”, “lmer” and “glmmadmb”, and manual of the “MuMIn” package shows the “dredge” function can be applicable for all these GLMM functions (Barton K. 2013). Then, they used “glmmadmb” and “dredge” for their analyses. However, when the authors made further analyses of the same data set using “glmmadmb” and “dredge” functions recently, they found a discrepancy of statistic results of “dredge” with other functions (“summary” and “model.sel”). The “dredge” seems not to take account of “mixed effect” of the models and it seems to generate results of GLM (i.e. “glm.nb” function). This bug of software has not been ever reported as far as the authors know and may occur only between “glmmadmb” and “dredge”. The “dredge” might work properly in “glmmML” and “lmer”.