SPC can act as a mitogen in several Selleckchem Rabusertib different cell types and in certain circumstances, may also be a pro-inflammatory mediator. In this review, these actions of SPC are discussed with a view to understanding the potential physiological relevance of this sphingolipid. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The potential role of apoptosis in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been an area of intense research in recent years. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine-conjugate, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) are endogenous bile acids that act as potent inhibitors
of apoptosis. Their therapeutic effects have been tested in many experimental pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, such as AD. TUDCA regulates precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that impact mitochondrial function in neurons. TUDCA not only stabilizes the mitochondrial membrane and prevents Bax translocation, inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases, but also interferes with upstream factors, including cell cycle-related proteins. In addition, TUDCA is capable of inducing survival pathways. Here, we review the role of apoptosis in AD and discuss the therapeutic potential of TUDCA in treating this disease.”
Despite a high success rate in the stereotactic radiosurgical treatment BGJ398 of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that cannot be safely resected with microsurgery, some patients must be managed after
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the use of repeat linear accelerator radiosurgery as a treatment for failed AVM radiosurgery at the University of Florida.
METHODS: We reviewed 103 patients who underwent repeat radiosurgical treatment for residual see more AVM at the University of Florida between December 1991 and December 2007. Each of these patients had at least 2 radiosurgical treatments for the same AVM. Patient information, including AVM nidus volume, prescription dose, age, and sex, was collected at the time of initial treatment and again at the time of retreatment. Patients were followed up after treatment with magnetic resonance, computed tomography, and angiographic imaging at standard intervals to determine the status of their AVM. The median follow-up after retreatment was 31 months.
RESULTS: Between the first and second treatments, the median AVM nidus volume was decreased by 69% (from a median volume of 12.7 to 4.0 cm(3)), allowing the median prescribed dose to be increased from 1500 cGy on initial treatment to 1750 cGy on retreatment. The final obliteration rate on retreatment was 65.3%. After salvage retreatment, 5 patients (4.9%) experienced radiation-induced complications, and 6 patients (5.8%) experienced posttreatment hemorrhage.
CONCLUSION: Repeat radiosurgery is a safe and effective salvage treatment for AVMs.