The surface analysis of products was carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, PHI 5000 VersaProbe, UIVAC-PHI Inc., Chigasaki, Kanagawa, Japan). The products were examined on an X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD) at RT for phase I-BET-762 identification using CuKα radiation (model D/Max-RA, Rigaku
Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Raman spectroscopic investigations were performed over a Jobin-Yvon Labram HR800 instrument (Horiba, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) with 514.5-nm Ar laser excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra were collected at RT over a spectrofluorophotometer (Shimadzu RF-5301 PC; Shimadzu Co. Ltd., Beijing, China) using a Xe lamp as light source. For PL investigation, about
0.1 mg of sample was ultrasonically dispersed in 5 ml of deionized water. Thermoanalysis selleck was carried out using a thermal analysis system (NETZSCH STA 449C; NETZSCH Company, Shanghai, China) with the sample heated in air at a rate of 20°C/min. Results and discussion We observed that when reaction temperature is higher than 500°C or lower than 400°C, the yield of CNM is small (TEM observation). Above 500°C, there is heavy decomposition of RG7112 molecular weight Na2CO3 into sodium oxide and CO2, a situation unfavorable for CNM formation. Below 400°C, the decomposition of acetylene becomes unfavorable. Since there could be Na2CO3 decomposition at certain reaction temperatures, we do not choose weight change as a means to measure
product yields. Shown in Table 1 are the conditions used for the generation of CNM. Table 1 Preparation summary of samples Reaction temperature (°C) Flow rate ratios (C2H2/NH3) Sample name 450 C2H2 only C450 450 5:1 C5N1 450 1:1 C450N 500 1:1 C500N Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of the as-obtained and purified samples. The peaks of Na2CO3 can be indexed to the monoclinic phase of Na2CO3 (JCPDS 37–0451) with a = 8.906 Å, b = 5.238 Å, and c = 6.045 Å. Figure 1a,b is the patterns of C450 and C450N before and after purification, respectively. It is apparent that there are graphite carbon and Na2CO3 in CNM and N-CNM before purification. After repeated washing with water and ethanol, there is complete elimination of Na2CO3 as well as ethanol-soluble organic outgrowth. With the incorporation Prostatic acid phosphatase of nitrogen, there is decline of graphite signal intensity. Figure 1 XRD patterns of (a) as-obtained and (b) purified samples. Figure 2 shows the FE-SEM and TEM images of the purified samples. The selectivity to carbon species was determined statistically according to the number of counts of CNM at different regions of the TEM and FE-SEM images. The images of C5N1 are not given here for they are similar to those of C450 and C450N. As shown in Figure 2a,d, the major constitution of C450 is long and composed of linear carbon nanofibers (LCNF).