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1 P. Valero and R. Zevenbergen (Eds.), Researching the socio-political dimensions of mathematics education: Issues of power in theory and methodology, 5—23. © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

PAOLA VALERO

SOCIO-POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON MATHEMATICS EDUCATION

In the short editorial note to the introductory section of this book the editors argued in favour of an emerging research trend in mathematics education called the socio- political perspective. They have briefly mentioned how this trend pays particular attention to the fields of practice and of academic research of mathematics education. My intention in this first chapter is to make a case for the existence and need to attend to such an approach. I explore possible reasons why the adoption of a socio-political perspective to research mathematics education practices, as unfolded in different educational environments, provides fruitful ways of conceiving the phenomena of the teaching and learning of mathematics. These conceptions open possibilities to understand other aspects of those practices and phenomena that other well-established research trends have not substantially considered. I also engage in a ‘meta-reflection’ about the practice of researching mathematics education. I contend that part of the development of a socio-political approach involves posing critical questions to the way in which we as researchers, in our activity, build theories, construct ‘objects’ of study and influence our world with the knowledge that we produce. In other words, I ask questions about the way in which we exercise power with our research in mathematics education.

REVISITING THE CORE OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION RESEARCH

Mathematics education researchers, through their activity and in their discourse, have provided definitions of their field of study. These definitions start by characterising —and therefore constructing (see Popkewitz, this volume)— the ‘objects’ that form a part of its gaze. Even though it is possible to claim that mathematics education is a ‘new’ discipline or field of academic research, there have been multiple ways of defining its objects of study. There has also been a wide range of ‘lenses’ that researchers have chosen to give an account of those objects. Unity in approach has not characterised the evolution of the field, particularly in recent times. This diversity has raised a number of debates including whether or not mathematics education can in fact be considered a discipline (e.g., the discussion in Working Group 4 in Sierpinska & Kilpatrick, 1998, p. 25), whether there is a search of identity (e.g., Sierpinska & Kilpatrick, 1998) or, if in fact, the field has wide-

2 P. VALERO

spread, multiple identities (e.g., Vithal & Valero, 2003), and whether the various approaches —including the theories and methodologies— represent ‘valuable’ contributions to both the practical and theoretical concerns of the field (e.g., Lesh, 2002). In all these discussions, there has been a constant creation of discourses about what mathematics education research is, as well as what the practices of mathematics education in schools and other spaces are. This means that as researchers, we create the ‘objects’ of our study while we engage in the practice of researching those objects.

This remark is of crucial importance when attempting to define the elements of a research approach in mathematics education —in relation to other possible approaches— because it allows us to see that what we choose to research and the ways in which we carry out that research are constructions determined, among other factors, by who we are and how we choose to engage in academic inquiry. In other words, there are considerable ‘subjective’ and ‘ideological’ grounds —rather than ‘objective’ reasons— to engage in particular ways of conceiving and conducting research in mathematics education. Furthermore, there are many socially, economically and historically grounded reasons for understanding the development of this field of study and its constructions.

When tracing the trajectory of mathematics education research in English speaking countries, many authors have pointed to the origins of the discipline emerging mainly in the intersection of mathematics and psychology (e.g., Kilpatrick, 1992). Even though other fields of study have also played a role in contributing to the core of the field, these two have shown the most prolific developments. This means that the dominant definitions of mathematics education practices and mathematics education research have mainly arisen from the work of mathematicians whose focus has been on mathematics, or of psychologists who have a strong propensity towards learning and cognition. The result of this has been the emergence of definitions of mathematics education as the field of study which ‘investigate[s] and [develops] the teaching of mathematics at all levels including its premises, goals and societal environment’ (Wittmann, 1998, p. 87). Mathematics as ‘an original and natural element of human cognition’ (p. 90) is the starting point of this endeavour. The approaches adhering to this type of definition have spawned a considerable body of knowledge about the teaching and learning of school mathematics —each with its own nuances and assumptions. The focus has been predominantly on how individuals learn (school) mathematics and, in so doing, this research has developed an improved understanding of the ways in which practices in schools may enhance the learning and mathematical thinking capacity of individual students. Today, one only has to attend the many mathematics education conferences throughout the world —whether these are for teachers or researchers— to notice the dominance of this focus. Similarly, surveys of publications including books, journals and conference proceedings strongly support the claim that mathematics education is dominated by these two views of the field (Chassapis, 2002; Gómez, 2000; Skovsmose & Valero, 2002).

When looking at the evolution of the field in relation to the historical time in which it started flourishing —namely, around the middle of the 20th century—, it is not surprising that the association between mathematics and psychology had

SOCIO-POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES ON MATHEMATICS EDUCATION 3 supported mathematics education research. If we look at the history of mathematics education, as seen from the USA point of view (see Schoenfeld, 2002, pp. 437-443), we find a relationship between the expansion of different schools in psychology — such as the Gestalt psychology, behaviourism, and constructivism— and the different types of studies and directions that research has taken1. It is not implausible to hypothesize that the people who started doing research on different phenomena related to the teaching and learning of mathematics have found it fruitful to borrow theories and research tools from psychology. Such fruitfulness could be seen in the possibility to concentrate on understanding and improving individual learning and achievement, one of the main justifications and characteristics of general educational reforms in the USA since the 1960’s (e.g., Lieberman, 1992); and to focus on mathematical thinking and cognition, one of the banners of mathematics education movements from the time of the New Maths. Some trends of psychological research could have been regarded as the most appropriate to reach educational as well as mathematics-related research aims. It is also worth reminding that in search for academic recognition, mathematics educators could have found in psychology and mathematics good allies to legitimate their work, as Lerman (2000, p. 22) argues: ‘Both the disciplines of mathematics and psychology have high status in universities, and locating mathematics education within either group is seen as vital in some countries in terms of status and therefore funding and respectability’.

Besides the internal reasons for the fruitfulness of this alliance, it could be interesting to look at its possible social significance and ‘functionality’ in relation to broader frames of reasoning. Popkewitz (2002) has argued that the development of a particular kind of schooling and of the educational sciences —including curricular studies and subject-matter didactics such as mathematics education— has to be understood in relation to the consolidation of the modern state, one of whose main concerns is the administration of its citizens:

The school subjects are not merely identifying and organizing academic disciplines of mathematics, science, history, geography, music or art into formats that children learn. If one historically considers the school subjects in the beginning of the 20th century, they installed standards that were to make the child’s conduct legible, easily administrable, and equal. The logic underlying the teaching of mathematics and other curriculum, for example, was less related to the academic discipline than to a romantic, even spiritual hope of the future of a liberal democracy and a fear of deviance engendered in the hope […] Pedagogy was to fabricate the new child who embodied the political principles of action and participation and, to paraphrase curriculum writers of the time, to prevent the barbarians from knocking at the American door. (pp. 37-38)

The role of psychology, more than any other social science, has been essential in the process of making the child ‘administrable’ through (mathematics) education because it has provided tools to name, describe and measure the way in which students are expected to thin