These models can estimate NO from distal lung (alveolar NO) and a

These models can estimate NO from distal lung (alveolar NO) and airways (bronchial flux). The aim of this study was to show the limitation in selleck exhaled flow rate for the theoretical models of NO production in the respiratory system, linear and nonlinear models. Subjects (n = 32) exhaled at eight different flow rates between 10-350 mL s(-1) for the theoretical protocols. Additional subjects (n = 32) exhaled at tree flow rates (20, 100 and 350 mL s(-1)) for the clinical protocol. When alveolar NO is calculated using high flow rates with the linear model, correction for axial back diffusion becomes

negligible, -0.04 ppb and bronchial flux enhanced by 1.27. With Hogman and Merilainen algorithm (nonlinear model) the corrections factors can be understood to be embedded, and the flow rates to be used are <= 20, 100 and >= 350 mL s(-1). Applying these flow rates in a clinical

setting any FENO can be calculated necessitating fewer exhalations. Hence, measured F(E)NO0.05 12.9 (7.2-18.7) ppb and calculated 12.9 (6.8-18.7) ppb. In conclusion, the only possibility to avoid inconsistencies between research groups is to use the measured NO values as such in modelling, and apply tight quality control to accuracies in both NO concentration and exhaled flow measurements.”
“Medically underserved women with recently diagnosed breast cancer face a number of significant obstacles that impact the timeliness and quality Ricolinostat cell line of their care. The Breast

CARES (Cancer Advocacy, Resources Education and Support) intervention combined patient navigation with telephone counseling to guide newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in overcoming treatment barriers. The study aimed to learn more about the types of barriers encountered by the participants. The study also sought to understand the relationship between patient-reported barriers and patient-reported psychosocial distress in underserved women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using a mixed-methods approach. Participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention. AZD1390 mw Psychosocial measures included cancer-related distress, depression, anxiety, social support, and quality of life. Case notes and responses to process evaluation questions were used to determine whether the CARES intervention adequately addressed the needs of the participants. The mean age of participants (N = 20) was 54 years (SD = 12.5), 40 % were Hispanic, 70 % were unemployed, 50 % were uninsured, and 20 % were mono-lingual in Spanish. Qualitative analysis revealed four categories of barriers: psychosocial, medical, logistical, and communication. Similarities and differences existed between the PN and TC regarding how barriers were addressed. Post-intervention psychosocial scores indicate a decrease in depression and cancer-related distress and an increase in social support.

Synthesis and complete structural determination of DTBZ and TTBZ

Synthesis and complete structural determination of DTBZ and TTBZ.FICl by NMR and X-ray crystallography were carried out. They were identical in LC-MS with polar impurities found in light exposed TBZ samples. However, even if these TBZ degradation products are correlated with discoloration of TBZ solution there is no evidence they are directly responsible of it. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The effect of anticoagulation by heparin on patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), receiving

early dual antiplatelet therapy, has not been fully evaluated. We classified 355 patients with NSTE-ACS according to the adequacy of anticoagulation (percentage of low activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT] level). The 6-hour APTT level was optimal in only 23.1% CAL-101 of the patients treated with unfractionated heparin. The rate of poor preprocedural coronary blood flow (thrombolysis in

myocardial infarction grade smaller than 3, 39.1%, 30.5%, 30.3%, and 33.9% in the 100% low-, 99%approximate to 50% low-, 49%approximate to 1% low-, and 0% low-APTT group, respectively, P = .632) and bleeding events did not differ between the groups. Instead, in multivariate analysis, the diagnosis of myocardial infarction was the only independent predictor of poor coronary flow. For bleeding events, the usage of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor appeared to be a sole risk factor. In conclusion, inadequate preprocedural anticoagulation was not associated with adverse outcomes in patients with NSTE-ACS treated with dual antiplatelet agents.”
“Aim. Aim of this study is Selleck LY3039478 to investigate the possible effectiveness of a specific program management needs of patients at high impact health care, case management (CM). The welfare impact is evaluated in terms of the severity of the presented disorder or to other characteristic factors of the individual patient, such as: adherence to the proposed treatments, possible resistance to drug treatment, cognitive structure, the presence of comorbid medical pathologies, abuse/addiction

and, more generally. all bio-psycho-social functioning variables that can complicate the treatment of AZD7762 order the patient. Methods. Twenty five outpatients with chronic schizophrenia (age mean 49,5 yrs) were evaluated through the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN20) and Life Skill Profile (LSP) before and after 1 year of CM treatment. General psychopathology was assessed by the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Demographic data were collected, as well as data related to the severity of the disorder: number of hospitalizations and number of switch in drug treatment in the year before the study. Results. Between T0 and T1 there is a significant improvement on CGI-G. BPRS (total and HOST factor), LSP and CAN TOT in patients treated with CM. Moreover, in CM treated patients a 58% reduction of hospitalizations is noted in the year of study.

54 (95% CI,

1 17-2 02) times higher odds of 30-day mortal

54 (95% CI,

1.17-2.02) times higher odds of 30-day mortality than those treated at high-PCI volume hospitals after adjusting for other factors. The adjusted odds ratio between medium- and high-volume hospitals did not reach statistical significance (odds ratio 1.33, 95% CI 0.91-1.56).\n\nConclusions Though greater, the adjusted odds of 30-day mortality for patients undergoing PCI at medium-volume hospitals was not significantly different from those of patients treated at high-volume hospitals. This suggests that current ACC/AHA PCI hospital volume minimums may need to be reevaluated in non-Western countries such as Taiwan.”
“Wild-type rubella viruses grow well at 39 degrees C (non-temperature sensitivity: non-ts), while vaccine strains do not (temperature sensitivity: ts). Histidine at position 1042 of the p150 region

of the KRT vaccine strain was found to be Small molecule library responsible for ts, while wild-type viruses had tyrosine at position 1042 (Vaccine 27; 234-42, 2009). The point-mutated virus (Y1042H) based on the wild-type unexpectedly showed little reduction in growth at 39 degrees C. In this report, several recombinant viruses were Veliparib characterized, and point-mutated Y1042H together with the p90 region of KRT significantly reduced virus growth, compared to the parental wild-type virus. There was one amino acid difference at position 1497 of the helicase domain in the p90 region. Double mutation involving both positions 1042 and 1497 markedly reduced virus growth at 39 degrees C. but single substitution at 1497 did not. The other vaccine strain (TO-336vac) was investigated, and serine at position 1159 of the protease domain in p150 was a crucial AZD9291 in vitro amino acid for ts and non-ts characteristics among four amino acid substitutions between TO-336vac and the wild-type. Our results

suggest that protease and helicase domains in non-structural protein were consistent with ts phenotype, possibly related to the attenuation process of wild-type viruses. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Allosteric ribozymes were developed by rational design and step-wise optimization. These ribozymes accelerate a Diels-Alder reaction between anthracene and maleimide derivatives. The optimized sequence is efficiently activated by theophylline under single and multiple turnover conditions and distinguishes between structurally similar effector molecules.”
“In:Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals were grown by Czochralski technique with various [Li]/[Nb] ratios of 0.946, 1.05, 1.20, 1.38 in the melt. The infrared (IR) spectrum and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used to investigate defect structure of these crystals. The nonvolatile holographic storage properties of In:Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals were studied with the two-wave mixing technique. The grating was recorded by a Kr+ laser (476 nm) and read by a He-Ne laser (633 nm). Experimental results indicated In:Ce:Mn:LiNbO3 crystals with the [Li]/[Nb] ratios of 1.

An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respe

An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent selleck chemicals healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated

with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A,

and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process.”
“Background: Medication errors involving insulin are common, particularly during the administration stage, and may cause severe harm. Little is known about the prevalence of insulin administration errors in hospitals, especially in resource-restricted settings, check details where the burden of diabetes is growing alarmingly. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, type, and potential clinical outcome of errors in preparation

selleckchem and administration of insulin in resource-restricted setting hospitals. Methods: This study was conducted on six wards in two urban public hospitals in Vietnam using a direct observation method. Details of insulin preparation and administration were collected by pharmacy students 12 hours per day for 7 consecutive days on each ward. Potential clinical outcome was judged by a panel of four experts using a validated scale. Results: The error rate was 28.8% (95% confidence interval [23.1%, 35.2%], n = 66 out of 229 insulin doses)all with potentially moderate/severe outcome. Higher error rates were observed for infusion doses than for subcutaneous ones (80.0% vs. 22.5%, p smaller than .01). Incorrect time, incorrect preparation/administration technique, and omissions were mostly encountered. Discussion: Interventions suitable for resource-restricted settings need to be developed and tested to improve insulin preparation and administration, probably starting with education and providing information, especially infusion doses.

Pre-treatment with either

SCH-23390 (0 1 mg/kg, i p ) or

Pre-treatment with either

SCH-23390 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or raclopride (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), a D1 or D2 dopaminergic receptor antagonist, respectively, abrogated the effects of amphetamine on the lymphoproliferative response and on met-enkephalin levels of the spleen. The amphetamine-induced increase in limbic met-enkephalin content was suppressed by SCH-23390 but click here not by raclopride pre-treatment. Finally, an intra-accumbens 6-hydroxy-dopamine injection administered 2 weeks previously prevented amphetamine-induced effects on the lymphoproliferative response and on met-enkephalin levels in the prefrontal cortex and spleen. These findings strongly suggest that D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors are involved in amphetamine-induced effects at immune level as regards the lymphoproliferative response and the changes in spleen met-enkephalin content, whereas limbic met-enkephalin levels were modulated only by the D1 dopaminergic receptors. In addition, this study showed that a mesolimbic component modulated BI2536 amphetamine-induced effects on the immune response, as previously shown at a behavioral level. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Naltrexone, a non-selective opioid antagonist, decreases the euphoria and positive subjective responses to alcohol in heavy drinkers. It has been proposed

that the mu-opioid receptor plays a role in ethanol reinforcement through modulation of ethanol-stimulated Proteasome inhibitor mesolimbic dopamine release.\n\nTo investigate the ability of naltrexone and beta-funaltrexamine, an irreversible mu-opioid specific antagonist, to inhibit ethanol-stimulated and morphine-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release, and to determine whether opioid receptors on mesolimbic neurons contribute to these mechanisms.\n\nEthanol-na < ve male Long Evans rats were given opioid receptor antagonists either intravenously,

subcutaneously, or intracranially into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), followed by intravenous administration of ethanol or morphine. We measured extracellular dopamine in vivo using microdialysis probes inserted into the nucleus accumbens shell (n = 114).\n\nAdministration of naltrexone (intravenously) and beta-funaltrexamine (subcutaneously), as well as intracranial injection of naltrexone into the VTA did not prevent the initiation of dopamine release by intravenous ethanol administration, but prevented it from being as prolonged. In contrast, morphine-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release was effectively suppressed.\n\nOur results provide novel evidence that there are two distinct mechanisms that mediate ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release (an initial phase and a delayed phase), and that opioid receptor activation is required to maintain the delayed-phase dopamine release.

g dominant negative-graded loss of function) To distinguish the

g. dominant negative-graded loss of function). To distinguish these alternatives, we compared genome-wide gene expression changes correlated with CAG size across an allelic series of heterozygous CAG knock-in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell

lines (Hdh(Q20/7), Hdh(Q50/7), Hdh(Q91/7), Hdh(Q111/7)), to genes differentially expressed between Hdh(ex4/5/ex4/5) huntingtin null and wild-type (Hdh(Q7/7)) parental ES cells. The set of 73 genes whose expression varied continuously with CAG length had minimal overlap with the 754-member huntingtin-null gene set but the two were not completely unconnected. Rather, the 172 CAG length-correlated pathways and 238 huntingtin-null significant pathways clustered into 13 shared categories at the network level. A closer examination of the energy metabolism and the lipid/sterol/lipoprotein metabolism categories revealed that CAG length-correlated genes and huntingtin-null-altered genes either were different members of the same pathways or were in unique, but interconnected pathways. Thus, varying the polyglutamine size in full-length huntingtin produced gene expression changes that were distinct

from, but related to, the effects of lack of huntingtin. 3-Methyladenine ic50 These findings support a simple gain-of-function mechanism acting through a property of the full-length huntingtin protein and point to CAG-correlative approaches to discover its effects. Moreover, for therapeutic strategies based on huntingtin suppression, our data highlight processes that may be more sensitive to the disease trigger than to decreased huntingtin levels.”
“Background: Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses

of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to ibuprofen.\n\nResults: Our findings reveal intriguing similarities in the mode of action of ibuprofen between vertebrates and invertebrates, and they suggest that ibuprofen has a targeted impact on reproduction at the molecular, organismal, and population level in daphnids. Microarray expression and temporal real-time quantitative PCR profiles of key genes suggest early ibuprofen interruption of crustacean eicosanoid metabolism, which appears to disrupt signal transduction affecting juvenile hormone metabolism and oogenesis.\n\nConclusion: Combining molecular and organismal stress responses provides a guide to possible chronic consequences of environmental stress for population health. This could improve current environmental risk assessment by providing an early indication of the need for higher tier testing. Our study demonstrates the advantages of a systems approach to stress ecology, in which Daphnia will probably play a major role.

05) In contrast, physical therapists more often accessed printed

05). In contrast, physical therapists more often accessed printed resources (printed journals and textbooks) than the other specialists (P<0.05). And nurses, physical therapists and technicians more often asked colleagues and used continuing education than the other groups (P<0.01). The most commonly used online database

was Micromedex for pharmacists and MEDLINE for physicians, technicians and physical therapists. Nurses more often accessed Chinese-language MI-503 chemical structure databases rather than English-language databases (P<0.001). Conclusions This national survey depicts the information-searching pattern of various health professionals. There were significant differences between and within main and allied health professionals in their information searching. The data provide clinical implications for strategies to promote the accessing of evidence-based information.”
“Bispira polyomma sp. nov. is described. The taxon was recently found on the SW coast of The Netherlands (NE Atlantic), and could not be referred to as any previously described species

of the genus Bispira. The area has been thoroughly investigated in the past, therefore we hypothesize the species is a new introduction to The Netherlands. The tubeworm is able to settle massively on all kinds of hard substrates, is eurythermal and able to withstand slight pollution, and therefore wider dispersal is a possibility to reckon with. For this reason we give a taxonomic species description even though the genus needs further TPCA-1 cost revision. Presently the taxon has been observed only near Yerseke, a centre of shellfish culture and trade with a marina. The taxon was found in 2010. Subsequent surveys revealed a very dense population had developed in 2011, with the presence of small individuals in summer 2011 suggesting successful reproduction.”
“Childhood obesity is a global epidemic

and associated with an increased risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease, in addition to psychological disorders. click here Interventions such as bariatric surgery are highly invasive and lifestyle modifications are often unsuccessful because of disturbed perceptions of satiety. New signaling peptides discovered in recent years that are produced in peripheral tissues such as the gut, adipose tissue, and pancreas communicate with brain centers of energy homeostasis, such as the hypothalamus and hindbrain. This review discusses the major known gut- and adipose tissue-derived hormones involved in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis and their serum levels in childhood obesity before and after weight loss as well as their relationship to consequences of obesity. Since most of the changes of gastrointestinal hormones and adipokines normalize in weight loss, pharmacological interventions based on these hormones will likely not solve the obesity epidemic in childhood.

“Background: The impact of adherence to clinical practice

“Background: The impact of adherence to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for loco-regional treatment (i.e. surgery and radiotherapy) and chemotherapy on local disease control and survival in sarcoma patients was investigated in a European study conducted

in an Italian region (Veneto).\n\nPatients and methods: The completeness of the adherence to the Italian CPGs for sarcomas treatment was assessed by comparing the patient’s charts and the CPGs. Propensity score-adjusted multivariate survival analysis was used to assess the impact of CPGs adherence on patient clinical outcomes.\n\nResults: A total of GSI-IX ic50 151 patients were included. Adherence to CPGs for loco-regional therapy and chemotherapy was observed in 106 out of 147 (70.2%) and 129

out of 139 (85.4%) patients, respectively. Non-adherence to CPGs for loco-regional treatment was independently associated with AJCC stage III disease [odds ratio (OR) 1.77, P = 0.0111 and tumor-positive excision margin (OR 3.55, P = 0.003). Patients not treated according to the SN-38 in vitro CPGs were at a higher risk of local recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) 5.4, P <0.001] and had a shorter sarcoma-specific survival (HR 4.05, P< 0.001), independently of tumor stage.\n\nConclusions: Incomplete adherence to CPGs for loco-regional treatment of sarcomas was associated with worse prognosis in patients with non-metastatic tumors.”
“Background: It was still unclear whether the methodological reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in major hepato-gastroenterology journals improved after the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was revised in 2001.\n\nMethods: RCTs in five major hepato-gastroenterology journals published in 1998 or 2008 were retrieved from MEDLINE using a high sensitivity search method and their reporting quality of methodological details were evaluated based on the CONSORT Statement and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of interventions. Changes of the methodological reporting quality between 2008 and 1998 were calculated by risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals.\n\nResults: A total

of 107 RCTs published JQ-EZ-05 in 2008 and 99 RCTs published in 1998 were found. Compared to those in 1998, the proportion of RCTs that reported sequence generation (RR, 5.70; 95% CI 3.11-10.42), allocation concealment (RR, 4.08; 95% CI 2.25-7.39), sample size calculation (RR, 3.83; 95% CI 2.10-6.98), incomplete outecome data addressed (RR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03-3.17), intention-to-treat analyses (RR, 3.04; 95% CI 1.72-5.39) increased in 2008. Blinding and intent-to-treat analysis were reported better in multi-center trials than in single-center trials. The reporting of allocation concealment and blinding were better in industry-sponsored trials than in public-funded trials. Compared with historical studies, the methodological reporting quality improved with time.

(C) 2015 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Background: Tu

(C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Treatment with TNFa inhibitors reduces selleck chemicals disease activity and improves outcomes for patients with RA. This study evaluated

the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol 400 mg, a novel, poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated, Fc-free TNF alpha inhibitor, as monotherapy in patients with active RA.\n\nMethods: In this 24-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 220 patients previously failing >= 1 disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) were randomised 1: 1 to receive subcutaneous certolizumab pegol 400 mg (n = 111) or placebo (n = 109) every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was 20% improvement according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) at week 24. Secondary endpoints included ACR50/70

response, ACR component scores, 28-joint Disease Activity Score Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate 3 (DAS28(ESR)3), patient-reported outcomes (including physical function, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain and fatigue) and safety.\n\nResults: At week 24, the ACR20 response rates were 45.5% for certolizumab pegol 400 mg every 4 weeks vs 9.3% for placebo (p < 0.001). Differences for certolizumab pegol vs placebo in the ACR20 response were statistically significant as early as week Repotrectinib nmr 1 through to week 24 (p < 0.001). Significant improvements HSP activation in ACR50, ACR components, DAS28(ESR)3 and all patient-reported outcomes were also observed early with certolizumab pegol and were sustained throughout the study. Most adverse events were mild or moderate and no deaths or cases of tuberculosis were reported.\n\nConclusions: Treatment with certolizumab pegol 400 mg monotherapy every 4 weeks effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of active RA in patients previously failing >= 1 DMARD compared with placebo, and demonstrated an acceptable safety profile.”

The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is used worldwide as an anti-ischemic strategy and to reduce myocardial workload. However, whether IABP augments coronary flow after coronary bypass via a passive increase in diastolic pressure or an active response of the coronary bed remains uncertain.\n\nMethods: We analyzed transit-time flow measurements and the contemporary changes in coronary resistances obtained during 1:1 IABP and during its cessation in 144 consecutive patients receiving prophylactic IABP before isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (n=340 graft segments).\n\nResults: Normally functioning grafts showed lower coronary resistances, greater percentage decrease in resistance, and greater increases in average maximum diastolic and mean flow during 1:1 IABP compared with IABP cessation (P<.001).

Soil properties and vegetation composition were analyzed

\n\nSoil properties and vegetation composition were analyzed

for several sites underlain by serpentinite, gabbro, and calc-schist 4SC-202 substrates and correlated using direct and indirect statistical methods.\n\nBoreal forest soils were well-developed and tended to have low pH throughout the soil profile resulting in high Ni availability. Alpine soils, in comparison, were less developed. The distinct serpentine plant communities of the Western Alps are most strongly correlated with high levels of bioavailable Ni associated with low soil pH. Other factors such as macronutrient deficiency, low Ca:Mg molar ratio and drought appear to be less important.\n\nThe strong ecological influence of Ni is caused by environmental conditions which increase metal mobilization.”
“The Alzheimer’s disease-linked gene presenilin is required for intramembrane proteolysis of amyloid-beta precursor protein, contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration that is characterized by loss of neuronal connections, but the role of Presenilin in establishing neuronal AZD2014 price connections is less clear. Through a forward genetic screen in mice

for recessive genes affecting motor neurons, we identified the Columbus allele, which disrupts motor axon projections from the spinal cord. We mapped this mutation to the Presenilin-1 gene. Motor neurons and commissural interneurons in Columbus mutants lacking Presenilin-1 acquire an inappropriate attraction to Netrin produced by the floor plate because of an accumulation MCC950 concentration of DCC receptor fragments within the membrane that are insensitive to Slit/Robo silencing. Our findings reveal that Presenilin-dependent DCC receptor processing coordinates the interplay between Netrin/DCC and Slit/Robo signaling. Thus, Presenilin is a key neural circuit builder that gates the spatiotemporal pattern of guidance signaling, thereby ensuring neural projections occur with high fidelity.”
“We investigated the strength of

the association between oxidative stress, hypoxia inducible factor I (HIFI a) and acute hypoxic ventilatory response (AHVR) after hypoxic training in elite runners.\n\nSix elite runners were submitted to 18-day of “living high-training low” (LHTL) and six performed the same training in normoxia. AHVR was measured during an acute hypoxic test before and after training. Plasma levels of protein oxidation (AOPP), malondialdehydes and (HIF-1 alpha) mRNA in the leukocytes were measured before and after the acute hypoxic test.\n\nLHTL increased AHVR and amplified the responses of HIF-1 alpha mRNA and AOPP (Delta(AOPP)) to the acute hypoxic test. Furthermore, between PRE and POST, the changes in Delta(AOPP) were correlated with the changes in AHVR (r = 0.69, P = 0.01).\n\nThe ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia occurring in athletes after LHTL seems to be modulated by oxidative stress. Furthermore, LHTL induced a higher sensitivity of HIF-1 alpha mRNA to acute hypoxia in elite athletes. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.