43 On the basis of survey and anecdotal information, the group co

43 On the basis of survey and anecdotal information, the group considered that the vast majority of laboratory reports in Australia and

New Zealand comply with this recommendation.48 Some key aspects of the recommendations from the Australasian Creatinine Consensus Working Group are summarized below: Pathology Saracatinib price laboratories should automatically report eGFR calculated using the ‘175’ MDRD formula, with every request for serum creatinine. Measurement of serum cystatin C can be also used to estimate GFR. This may be more accurate than creatinine based eGFR methods particularly at normal levels (90–120 mL/min) or above normal levels (>120 mL/min) but the assay is more expensive and is not yet generally available. Serial measurements of cystatin C levels have been shown to estimate progressive decline of GFR more accurately than creatinine based methods in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As with serum creatinine, the cystatin C is affected by factors other than the GFR and as with creatinine, knowledge of

these factors is required in both estimating the GFR and in the interpretation of eGFR in particular populations. Currently the non GFR factors associated with cystatin C are poorly defined which limits the routine application of serum cystatin C in the estimation of GFR both in people with and without type 2 diabetes.49–51 The recent review by Stevens et al.51 indicated check details many factors other than GFR to be associated with serum cystatin-C, including diabetes, measures of body size, higher C-reactive protein, higher white blood cell and lower serum albumin. The impact of these non GFR factors on serum cystatin C appear to be less than the non GFR influences

on serum creatinine, however, they remain poorly defined and may introduce significant variability within select sub populations. The recent study by Tidman 200852 concluded that the use of cystatin C only as ‘a determinator of eGFR does not yield improved accuracy’ over estimation using the MDRD formula alone, however, a formula that combines both serum the creatinine and cystatin C may provide greater accuracy, consistent with the conclusions made by.51 Databases searched: The search strategies were designed to reduce bias and ensure that most of the relevant data available on type 2 diabetes were included in the present review and were similar to those detailed in the Cochrane Collaboration Reviews Handbook (Higgins JPT et al.). The electronic databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, HTA and DARE. The detailed search strategy, research terms and yields are provided in Appendix 3 of the complete guideline document that can be found on the CARI website (http://www.cari.org.au). Date of searches: 28 March 2008.

Although vascular pedicle avulsion in breast reconstruction is an

Although vascular pedicle avulsion in breast reconstruction is an extremely rare complication, pedicle damage in free flap surgery is well documented,[11] while TD pedicle injury during axillary lymph nodes dissection is still poorly debated in literature. The most common causes of intra-operative pedicled flap failure are coupled to errors in surgical dissection, or excessive tension or torsion to the pedicle that

could give rise to flap ischemia and necrosis.[12, 13] Some new techniques for LD harvest might be effective for sparing muscle functions and achieving better aesthetic outcomes in recipient and donor sites, although increasing the chance of pedicle damage by the plastic surgeons.[14-16] In all reported five cases, the general surgeon injured JQ1 in vivo the TD pedicle during axillary lymph-node dissection prior to complete breast reconstruction, damages occurring at different anatomical sites requiring different types of microsurgical repair. In two cases, an end-to-end anastomosis between the distal TDV stump and CSV was adopted as best option to flap salvage since the previously experienced shortening of the TD vein stumps after refreshing the edges could produce an unsafe primary anastomosis

limiting the flap’s arch of rotation. No doubt raised on case where a sharp, longitudinal laceration of TDV without tissue loss required a simple microsurgical repair. In case of TDV injury from previous surgery, where the scarring around TD pedicle made also CSV dissection difficult and unreliable, see more surgeon was skilled enough to suddenly convert the pre-operative plan, considering the integrity of TD pedicle, from a pedicled to a free flap. In one case, the partial flap

loss probably occurred because of the shortening of arterial Celastrol stumps that may have led to unsafe anastomosis under tension; moreover the strain on the vessel followed by implant positioning under the muscle may have caused arterial vasospasm, flap ischaemia and consequently occlusive clot of the vein. To salvage a LD flap from a pedicle injury, few points should be addressed. Feasibility of primary anastomosis should be always assessed, but depending on type of injury (sharp laceration, cauterization, avulsion) including or not a vessel tissue loss, as the stumps revisions may result in too short vessels contraindicating a direct under tension anastomosis. Time of injury is also important, as long lasting damage from previous surgery can severely obstruct vessels, wrapped in scar tissue not suitable for anastomosis. Finally, according to the anatomical level of injury different salvage options are available and should be preferred. For better understanding, the TD pedicle can be converted into a vascular path along a line extending from the apex of axilla to the anterior border of the muscle, where it provides two terminal branches, a horizontal and a descending.


Specific LY2157299 price modulatory effects of MSCs from human and experimental animal sources have

been described for the differentiation, activation, proliferation and effector functions of multiple innate and adaptive immune cells 5–11. Among these, MSC-mediated inhibition of primary T-cell activation and proliferation, suppression of DC maturation and promotion of regulatory phenotypes in monocyte/macrophages and T cells have been most extensively characterised 7–9, 11, 12. In keeping with a paracrine or “trophic” model of MSC function in vivo 13, various MSC-produced soluble mediators have been implicated in these immunomodulatory effects including IL-10, IL-6, HGF, TGF-β, chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2), HLA-G, NO, tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and kyneurenine 1, 2, 7, 9, 12, 14–16. For some such mediators, expression by MSCs may be dependent on pre-exposure to exogenous factors (e.g. IFN-γ, TNF) or on contact-dependent MSC/target cell cross-talk 2, 7, 16–19. The potential for harnessing MSC immunomodulatory

properties has been highlighted by results in pre-clinical models of autoimmunity, allotransplantation, sepsis and acute ischemic injury 1, 4, 7, 14, 15 as well as by outcomes from clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease, graft-versus-host disease and myocardial infarction 1, 20. T cells represent the primary effector cells for common autoimmune why diseases and for rejection of transplanted organs and tissues 21. Furthermore, activated memory T cells have been implicated Selleck ALK inhibitor in non-antigen-specific forms of tissue injury such as ischemia-reperfusion 22, 23. In

addition to the investigation of mechanisms underlying MSC inhibition of T-cell activation, attention has also been directed toward their influence on specific T-cell effector phenotypes including CD8+ CTLs and the Th1, Th2 and Treg sub-types of CD4+ T cells which may be more or less prominent in individual immune-mediated diseases 12, 24–26. In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence would suggest that MSCs are consistently suppressive of CTL- and Th1-mediated immune responses while being less inhibitory toward Th2-type responses and actively promoting Treg survival and expansion 9, 12, 27. Less well understood for each of these subsets are the relative effects of MSCs on naïve T cells undergoing primary activation compared with previously activated, or memory-phenotype, T cells. The recent description of an additional CD4+ T-cell subset, termed Th17 cells, has added further complexity to our understanding of cellular adaptive immunity 28. The Th17 effector phenotype is characterised by synthesis of a signature cytokine, IL-17A, in addition to IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22 and CCL20 29.


The data demonstrate a severe weakening of the


The data demonstrate a severe weakening of the lymphatic pump in aged MLV including diminished lymphatic contraction amplitude, contraction frequency, and as a result, lymphatic pump activity. The data also suggest that the imposed flow gradient-generated shear-dependent relaxation does not exist in aged rat MLV, and the sensitivity of both adult and aged MLV to such shear cannot be eliminated by nitric oxide (NO) synthases NSC 683864 price blockade. Conclusions:  These data provide new evidence of lymphatic regional heterogeneity for both adult and aged MLV. In MLV, a constant interplay between the tonic and phasic components of the myogenic response and the shear-dependent release of NO predominantly determine the level of contractile activity;

the existence of another shear-dependent, but NO-independent regulatory mechanism is probably present. Aging remarkably weakens MLV contractility, which would predispose this lymphatic network to lower total lymph flow in resting conditions and limit the ability to respond to an edemagenic challenge in the elderly. “
“Dynamic changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels in vascular smooth muscle cells are critically important for cardiovascular regulation. This Special Topic Issue highlights a series of expert STAT inhibitor opinion articles focused on this important subject. After Rho a brief overview, novel discoveries surrounding smooth muscle cell Ca2+ influx via L-type and T-type channels are reviewed. Current work revealing the functional importance

of dynamic Ca2+ signaling in the control of the parenchymal microvasculature and the emerging role of mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling and store-operated Ca2+ entry in smooth muscle cells is discussed. Finally, recent data describing a new target of localized Ca2+ signaling in arterial myocytes that is responsible for membrane depolarization is reviewed. Authors were encouraged to write in an opinionated and provocative manner with the hope of stimulating discussion in this area of research. “
“Please cite this paper as: White K, Kane NM, Milligan G, Baker AH. The role of miRNA in stem cell pluripotency and commitment to the vascular endothelial lineage. Microcirculation19: 196–207, 2012. Vascular endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells have substantial potential for the development of novel vascular therapeutics and cell-based therapies for the repair of ischemic damage. To gain maximum benefit from this source of cells, a complete understanding of the changes in gene expression and how they are regulated is required. miRNAs have been demonstrated to play a critical role in controlling stem cell pluripotency and differentiation and are important for mature endothelial cell function.

On examining the phenotypic characteristics of the various EPEC s

On examining the phenotypic characteristics of the various EPEC strains, we found that aggregates of the strains isolated in Japan were smaller and weaker than those of strains isolated in Thailand. Further, when we examined adherence to HEp-2 cells, the results were similar to those of the autoaggregation assay. The EPEC strains which showed strong autoaggregation also showed a greater degree of contact hemolysis. It seemed that the contact hemolysis would

be promoted by the presence of BFPs, which would facilitate more effective adherence, so we tested these strains for the bfpA gene expression by RT-PCR and for BFP expression by performing Western blotting. mRNA of the bfpA gene and BFPs were not detected in strains which showed weak or no autoaggregation. mTOR inhibitor The EPEC strain, which showed weak aggregation and pili-like structure in Figure 3c, but not BFP (Fig. 5), might have been expressing the type I pili. While, it remains to be seen why the strain with truncated perA sequences showed strong autoaggregation. We observed frame shift mutant of perA even in the E2348/69 strain which changed to weak phenotype, so these region of perA might be liable to mutation.

We also tested the EPEC strains for the presence of BFP-related genes such as bfpF and perC, and detected them in most strains. We then converted the perA genes into amino acid sequences and found that the amino acid sequences of some of the perA genotypes had been truncated by a frame shift mutation of the perA gene. Strains with a truncated perA gene showed weak

or no autoaggregation and decreased HEp-2 cell adherence Olaparib order (Table 2). We did not find truncated amino acid sequences in bfpA genes. This study showed that most of the typical EPEC strains isolated in Japan did not express BFP, and it appeared that a truncated perA gene was connected with inhibition of BFP expression (Fig. 5). We performed PFGE analysis to show molecular typing of EPEC strains isolated from Japan (Fig. 7). There were no relationship between PFGE profiles and bfpA polymorphism. MRIP According to the recent studies, the prevalence of atypical EPEC has continued to increase not only in developed but also in developing countries (39). In Japan, most EPEC isolates have been classified as atypical EPEC, and even the supposedly typical EPEC strains from Japan used in this study could in fact be atypical EPEC, although bfpA genes were detected with PCR. As comparable results were obtained with HMA and DNA sequencing for bfpA and perA genes, this shows that genotyping by HMA was a useful method for classifying these genes. The distributions of bfpA and perA genotypes differed between the EPEC isolates from Japan and those from Thailand. A study of global polymorphisms of virulence genes and their phenotypic characteristics would yield more significant information on the pathogenesis of EPEC.

To disrupt each sample of tissue we added 400 μl of cell disrupti

To disrupt each sample of tissue we added 400 μl of cell disruption buffer and then homogenized the sample with a motorized rotorstator. Total RNA was isolated from tissue samples using the mirVanaTMParisTM kit (Ambion/Applied Biosystems). The RNA obtained from each sample was then quantified by NanoDrop. Pools of three tissue samples in each were analysed using a final concentration of 50 ng/μl. A total of 3 μl of the small Selleckchem Protease Inhibitor Library RNA fraction were reverse-transcribed using the miRNA Megaplex reverse

transcription primers (for pools A and B) and the TaqMan® microRNA reverse transcription kit (both from Applied Biosystems). The cDNA obtained was amplified using TaqMan® PreAmp Master Mix and Megaplex PreAmp Primers (for pools A and B). For the reverse transcription of cel-miR-39, we prepared a reaction with RT master mix using the TaqMan® microRNA reverse transcription kit, cel-miR-39 RT primer (TaqMan MicroRNA assay) and total RNA. The reaction was incubated at 16°C for 30 min, followed by 42°C for 30 min and then 85°C for 5 min. An initial reverse CHIR-99021 cost transcription–quantitative polymerase chain

reaction (RT–qPCR) was performed to test the quality of cDNA before the definitive analysis. At this point, three types of quality control were used. Cel-miR-39 was used as a spiked-in control in serum samples. RNU48 was used to test the quality and integrity of the obtained cDNA tissue. Mammalian U6 (U6) was used in both types of samples (serum and tissue).

Ct values of 16–19 in serum samples and 15–18 in tissue samples were considered as valid. Each RT reaction was performed using TaqMan® 2× Universal PCR Master Mix, No AmpErase UNG (Applied Biosystems). Up to 700 miRNAs were evaluated by the TaqMan® human miRNA array. A TaqMan® human microRNA array card is a high-throughput PCR-based miRNA array that enables analysis of more than 700 miRNA assays on a microfluidic card. Simultaneous synthesis of cDNA for mature miRNAs was performed using Megaplex reverse transcription human pool A and B (Applied Biosystems). Each of these, EGFR inhibitor A and B, is a set of predefined pools of 384 stem-looped reverse transcription primers. RT–qPCR was performed using the Applied Biosystems 7900HT fast real-time PCR system and default thermal-cycling conditions. Data analysis was performed using Expression Suite software (Applied Biosystems) and the HTqPCR library in r [27]. The ΔCt values were obtained using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs in a given sample as a normalization factor for miRNA RT–qPCR data, according to the procedure described by Mestdagh et al. [28]. The results were expressed as log2 fold change from ΔCt values. We discarded fold change values between −2 and 2 in absolute terms, with mean values between −1 and 1 expressed as log2 fold change.

7), IL-6 (0 9), IL-4 (4 5), IL-1ra (8 3), MIP-1α (2 9), and MCP-1

7), IL-6 (0.9), IL-4 (4.5), IL-1ra (8.3), MIP-1α (2.9), and MCP-1 (1.9). Leukocytes subsets were characterized check details in ChL and PL using the BD Multitest IMK kit following the manufacturer’s protocol (BD Biosciences, CA, USA; Cat. No. 340504): total leukocytes/CD45+(clone 2D1-HLe-1), NK cells/CD16+ (clone B73.1), CD56+ (clone NCAM 16.2), B cells/CD19+ (clone SJ25C1), and monocytes/macrophages/CD14+ (clone HCD14), and subsets of T cells/CD3+ (clone SK7), CD8+ (clone SK1), and CD4+ (clone SK3). Leukocyte subsets were analyzed within the CD45+ gate using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer, and data analysis was performed by BD Cell Quest software (BD Biosciences, CA, USA). Gelatinase activity in culture media

was determined by SDS–PAGE containing 1% gelatin under non-denaturing conditions as described previously.[21] Culture supernatants (0.5 μg of total protein) were loaded into each well. Enzymatic activity standards for MMP-2 and MMP-9 were included using conditioned media on the U-937 promyelocyte cell line.[24] Specific quantification of active and total MMP-9 in culture supernatants of choriodecidual and peripheral leukocytes was carried out using the Biotrak MMP-9 Activity Assay System (General Electric Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) following the protocol suggested by the manufacturer. To measure the total MMP-9 content, bound enzyme was activated with

p-aminophenylmercuric acetate. The learn more concentration of total and active MMP-9 in the samples is reported as nanograms (ng) of MMP-9 per μg of protein. Protein was measured by Bradford’s method.[25] For each variable, descriptive

statistics (mean, standard deviation, standard error, median, and range) were obtained, and the data distribution was tested for normality using the Kolmogorov–Smirnoff and Shapiro–Wilk tests. Student’s t-test was second performed to compare leukocytes subsets between ChL and PL. A P value ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Two-way analysis of variance using repeated measurement model was used to compare cytokines/chemokines concentrations in the culture media from ChL and PL. Differences with P ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were carried out using spss, version 20 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The two-step method, using a density gradient followed by selection by plastic adherence, yielded in 1,33,000 ± 3,500 choriodecidual leukocytes per cm[2] of fetal membranes (n = 18). According to the flow cytometry data, this method also allowed enriching and purifying (≥80%) choriodecidual leukocytes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were the major subsets in the ChL and PL preparations (Table 1). Choriodecidual leukocytes showed a distinct secretion pattern of cytokines and chemokines when compared with intervillous placental blood leukocytes (Fig. 1).

Four weeks after immunization, endogenous OVA257–264-specific mem

Four weeks after immunization, endogenous OVA257–264-specific memory CD8+ T cells represented ∼0.3% of the total lymphocytes. selleck chemical Mice were then challenged with OVA257–264 with or without sTL1A. Administration of OVA257–264 alone failed to expand Ag-specific memory T cells, whereas the combination of OVA257–264 and sTL1A resulted in a robust secondary response (Fig. 3C). To confirm that the observed expansion of CD8+ T cells was a true secondary response, we compared the response of pre-immunized

mice with that of naïve animals. In contrast with the response observed in pre-immunized mice, administration of OVA257–264 and sTL1A to naïve mice did not lead to a measurable increase in endogenous Ag-specific T cells as determined by ex vivo MHC-tetramer staining (Fig. 3C). Thus, TNFRSF25 can function as a costimulatory receptor for memory CD8+ T cells. To examine whether TNFRSF25 signaling promotes increased T-cell proliferation in vivo, we compared

the fluorescence profiles of CFSE-labeled OT-I cells following adoptive transfer into C57BL/6 ABT-737 order hosts. The fluorescence intensity of OT-I cells after administration of OVA257–264 and sTL1A was two- to three-fold lower than that of cells recovered from mice that had been given OVA257–264 alone, demonstrating that TNFRSF25 triggering enhanced OT-I cell proliferation in vivo (Fig. 3D). The increased proliferation of OT-I cells following TNFRSF25 triggering was independent of IL-2, since concurrent administration of neutralizing anti-IL-2 mAbs neither increased the fluorescence intensity of all OT-I cells (Fig. 3D) nor affected the TL1A-mediated increase in OT-I cell numbers (data not shown). The lack of a role for IL-2 in early expansion of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo has also been reported after infection

with Listeria monocytogenes14. To assess the effect of TNFRSF25 triggering on differentiation of CD8+ T cells into CTLs, we measured the relative expression levels of granzyme B and perforin mRNA in splenic cells following adoptive transfer of OT-I T cells. Expression was normalized to that of CD3δ, which takes into account differences in OT-I T-cell numbers between groups of mice that were immunized with OVA257–264 alone or OVA257–264 and sTL1A. sTL1A upregulated expression of granzyme B and perforin beyond that induced by administration of OVA257–264 alone (Fig. 3E). Furthermore, sTL1A also increased the expression of IL-2 (Fig. 3E), consistent with our in vitro findings (Fig. 2B), and blockade of IL-2 signaling in vivo diminished sTL1A-induced granzyme B expression (Fig. 3E). The latter finding is in agreement with previous studies demonstrating minimal induction of granzyme B and cytolytic activity in mice that lack a functional IL-2 receptor 15.

Our finding of airway cells with stem cell markers such as CD34 a

Our finding of airway cells with stem cell markers such as CD34 and Sca-1 after allergen exposure, together with evidence of proliferation of lung CD34+ and Sca-1+ cells, further argues that eosinophilopoiesis can occur locally in the lung after allergen exposure. A significant reduction in the CD34+ BM cells was found with the CCR3 antibody treatment, further verifying a role of the CCR3 receptor on CD34+ BM eosinophil-lineage-committed cells. Previously, it has been shown that combined systemic and local airway administration

of this depleting anti-CCR3 mAb, abolish eosinophils from the airway lumen after allergen exposure38 and CCR3-deficient mice CYC202 have a greatly reduced eosinophilic inflammatory response to allergen.39,40 A recent study shows that anti-CCR3 mAb treatment inhibits the migration and differentiation of mouse BM CD34+ cells in vitro.41 However, in the same study they used a depleting anti-CCR3 mAb, which induced antibody-mediated killing42 without any additional antagonistic activities, casting doubt on the conclusions noted in this paper.41 In conclusion, our study argues

that the CCR3/eotaxin pathway is involved in both the regulation of allergen-driven in situ haematopoiesis find more as well as the accumulation of eosinophil-lineage-committed progenitor cells in the lung. These data further suggest that the development of therapeutic strategies directly targeting in situ lung eosinophilopoiesis may represent a novel approach in the treatment of asthma. Targeting CCR3, or alternatively eotaxin-1 and/or eotaxin-2, may be effective in reducing tissue progenitor cell proliferation and mobilization in allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. In particular, the authors acknowledge DNAX, Palo Alto, CA for the rat anti-mouse CCR3 monoclonal antibody used in this study. The study was supported by the Swedish Medical Research Council (K2001-71X-13492-02B),

the Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, and the Vårdal Foundation. Prof. G protein-coupled receptor kinase Jan Lötvall is funded by the Herman Krefting’s foundation against Asthma/Allergy and AB from EAACI Research Fellow Exchange Scholarship. The authors have no financial conflict of interest. “
“V(D)J recombination is the process by which antibody and T-cell receptor diversity is attained. During this process, antigen receptor gene segments are cleaved and rejoined by non-homologous DNA end joining for the generation of combinatorial diversity. The major players of the initial process of cleavage are the proteins known as RAG1 (recombination activating gene 1) and RAG2. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of RAGs as a sequence-specific nuclease and its pathological role as a structure-specific nuclease. The first part of the review discusses the basic mechanism of V(D)J recombination, and the last part focuses on how the RAG complex functions as a sequence-specific and structure-specific nuclease.

Histone acetylation is induced in response to TLR stimulation in

Histone acetylation is induced in response to TLR stimulation in macrophages, and is involved in the expression of multiple proinflammatory cytokine genes. Acetylated histones are recognized by the bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) family of proteins (Fig. 1). Among the BET proteins, Brd4 is known to associate with P-TEFb, a Cdk9-cyclin T heterodimer that stimulates transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II 28, 29. A small compound (I-BET) interacting with the bromodomain has been identified and this compound was shown to suppress

inflammatory gene expression in TLR-stimulated buy MK-8669 macrophages by disrupting chromatin complexes 30. Treatment with I-BET rendered mice resistant to endotoxin shock and bacteria-induced sepsis, suggesting that inflammatory responses can be controlled by regulating epigenetic changes on proinflammatory gene promoters. Furthermore, trimethylation of H3K4 on cytokine gene promoters was also shown to be induced in M1 macrophages in response to TLR stimulation, indicating that a change in histone modification is induced in the course of M1 macrophage activation leading to chromatin remodeling and inflammatory gene expression 19. The methylation of H3K27 is mediated by the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) composed of Ezh2, click here Suz12 and

Eed 31. Proteins harboring a Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain, Jmjd3 (also known as Kdm6b), UTX and UTY, are known to act as H3K27 demethylases catalyzing trimethyl H3K27me3 to monomethyl H3K27me1 32–34. Among these enzymes, the expression of Jmjd3 is TLR-inducible in macrophages via an NF-κB-dependent pathway. Since H3K27 trimethylation is implicated in the silencing of gene expression, it has been postulated that Jmjd3 is involved in the fine-tuning of macrophage activation toward M1 by regulating a set of genes such as Bmp2 and Hox34, 35. However, production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to TLR ligand stimulation was not impaired in macrophages from Jmjd3-deificient mice,

and cytokine production in response to Listeria monocytogenes GNA12 infection was unaffected by Jmjd3 deficiency 36. Thus, Jmjd3 is dispensable for M1 macrophage polarization. In contrast, Jmjd3 is essential for M2 macrophage polarization to helminth infection and chitin administration in mice. Chitin is a polymerized sugar and a structural component of helminths, arthropods and fungi 37. Chitin administration recruits macrophages with M2 character to the site of administration, which is important for subsequent recruitment of eosinophils 38, 39. Jmdj3-deficient BM chimeric mice were defective in the expression of M2 macrophage markers in F4/80+CD11b+ macrophages and eosinophil recruitment in response to chitin administration. Furthermore, activation of M2 macrophages to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection was severely impaired in the absence of Jmjd3.