A weakening of the collagen fiber bundles in the lamina propria of the tympanic membrane (TM) is a prerequisite for the formation of a retraction pocket. Various collagen types have different tensile strength. The collagen-type distribution in the TM during otitis media and cholesteatoma has not been reported before.
Materials and Methods: The collagen contents of TM biopsies from child patients with longstanding secretory otitis media without retraction pockets were compared with pars tensa cholesteatomas
using immunohistochemical staining for collagen Types I to IV. The Selleck PF-4708671 histology was also investigated using transmission electron microscopy.
Results: The outer epithelium was in some biopsies thickened with evidence of edema. The biopsies showed an intact lamina propria with positive immunohistochemical staining for collagen Types I to III and showed normal collagen fiber bundles on electron microscopy. The outer epithelium of the cholesteatomas showed marked thickness variations and signs of edema. There was a presence of normal collagen fiber bundles in smaller parts
of all cholesteatomas, positive for collagen Types I to II. In other parts, only scattered collagen fibers were found.
Conclusion: Selonsertib cost Tympanic membrane biopsies from patients with longstanding secretory otitis media may show a thickening of the outer epithelium. Collagen Types I to III are present in the lamina propria, and no ultrastructural see more changes of the
collagen fiber bundles are observed. Collagen is found in cholesteatomas in the remnants of the lamina propria, with positive staining for collagen Types I and II, whereas Type III seems to be lacking.”
“Objective: The gold standard for removal of renal stones more than 2 cm in diameter is percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL). Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has become more and more fashionable because of its high safety and repeatability, especially in smaller stones. Many retrospective studies have proved its efficacy and safety in larger calculi, however. We decided to compare prospectively both procedures in terms of safety and efficacy in renal pelvic stones more than 2 cm in diameter.
Patients and Methods: This was a randomized single tertiary care center trial with two arms (32 patients in each arm). The first group comprised patients who underwent PCNL, while in the second group, there were patients in whom RIRS with a semirigid ureteroscope was used. The primary end points were hematocrit and hemoglobin drop after surgery as equivalents of safety and stone disintegration rate in terms of efficacy. The secondary end points comprised operating room time, visual analogue scale of pain, pain treatment, and hospital stay.
Results: The mean hematocrit drop after the procedure was lower in the second group. Similarly, operating room time and hospital stay were significantly shorter after RIRS in comparison with PCNL.