Every day patency was assessed to ensure no blocking of cannula. For IV bolus dose administration, hamsters and mice were dosed through the tail vein, rats through the jugular vein and dogs through the saphenous vein. The oral dose was administered by gavage for all animals. Studies were performed in healthy male golden Syrian hamsters (30 g), Swiss Albino mice (30–40 g), Sprague Dawley rats (250–300 g) and Beagle selleck products dogs (10–13 kg). Hamsters and mice were fasted 4 h prior to dosing and food was provided 4 h post dose. Rats and dogs were fasted overnight and were provided food 4 h post dose.
A sparse sampling design was used in hamsters and mice (n = 3 per time point). Serial blood sampling was used for rat (parallel groups; n = 4) and dog (crossover; n = 3). In hamster, approximately, 100 μL blood samples was collected (K2EDTA anticoagulant, 20 μL/mL, 200 mM) at 0.083 (only IV), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dose. In mouse and rat, blood samples were collected at 0.083 (only IV), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 48, and 72 h (only rat, not mouse) post-dose. In the dog, blood samples were collected at 0.083 (only IV), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 24, 48, and 72 h post-dose. Studies in dog using corn oil suspension, samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 120 h following single
oral dose administration (QD); following BID dosing (dose administration at 0 and 8 h), samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 8, 8.25, 8.50, 9.00, VRT752271 supplier 9.5, 10, 11, 14, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. In each case a 75 μL aliquot of blood was mixed with 75 μL of Ergoloid 0.1 M HCl, vortex-mixed
and centrifuged (2600g, 5 min), and the supernatant was stored below −60 °C until analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis tool of validated WinNonlin® software (Version 5.2). The area under the concentration time curve (AUClast and AUCinf) was calculated by linear trapezoidal rule. The peak concentration (Cmax) and time for the peak concentration (Tmax) were the observed values. The elimination rate constant value (kel) was obtained by linear regression of the log-linear terminal phase of the concentration–time profile using at least 3 non-zero declining concentrations in terminal phase with a correlation coefficient of >0.8. The terminal half-life value (t1/2) was calculated using the equation 0.693/kel. Allometric methods were used to predict human blood clearance, volume of distribution and half-life ( Chaturvedi et al., 2001, Mehmood and Balian, 1996 and Sharma and McNeill, 2009). Solubility of DNDI-VL-2098 was assessed up to 100 μM by spiking dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions (10 μL, duplicate) into 990 μL buffer in a 96-well plate and placing at room temperature for 2 h. Calibration standards were prepared by spiking 5 μL of DMSO stock solutions into 995 μL acetonitrile:buffer (1:1) mixture.