Every day patency was assessed to ensure no blocking of cannula

Every day patency was assessed to ensure no blocking of cannula. For IV bolus dose administration, hamsters and mice were dosed through the tail vein, rats through the jugular vein and dogs through the saphenous vein. The oral dose was administered by gavage for all animals. Studies were performed in healthy male golden Syrian hamsters (30 g), Swiss Albino mice (30–40 g), Sprague Dawley rats (250–300 g) and Beagle selleck products dogs (10–13 kg). Hamsters and mice were fasted 4 h prior to dosing and food was provided 4 h post dose. Rats and dogs were fasted overnight and were provided food 4 h post dose.

A sparse sampling design was used in hamsters and mice (n = 3 per time point). Serial blood sampling was used for rat (parallel groups; n = 4) and dog (crossover; n = 3). In hamster, approximately, 100 μL blood samples was collected (K2EDTA anticoagulant, 20 μL/mL, 200 mM) at 0.083 (only IV), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dose. In mouse and rat, blood samples were collected at 0.083 (only IV), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 48, and 72 h (only rat, not mouse) post-dose. In the dog, blood samples were collected at 0.083 (only IV), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 24, 48, and 72 h post-dose. Studies in dog using corn oil suspension, samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 120 h following single

oral dose administration (QD); following BID dosing (dose administration at 0 and 8 h), samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, 8, 8.25, 8.50, 9.00, VRT752271 supplier 9.5, 10, 11, 14, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. In each case a 75 μL aliquot of blood was mixed with 75 μL of Ergoloid 0.1 M HCl, vortex-mixed

and centrifuged (2600g, 5 min), and the supernatant was stored below −60 °C until analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis tool of validated WinNonlin® software (Version 5.2). The area under the concentration time curve (AUClast and AUCinf) was calculated by linear trapezoidal rule. The peak concentration (Cmax) and time for the peak concentration (Tmax) were the observed values. The elimination rate constant value (kel) was obtained by linear regression of the log-linear terminal phase of the concentration–time profile using at least 3 non-zero declining concentrations in terminal phase with a correlation coefficient of >0.8. The terminal half-life value (t1/2) was calculated using the equation 0.693/kel. Allometric methods were used to predict human blood clearance, volume of distribution and half-life ( Chaturvedi et al., 2001, Mehmood and Balian, 1996 and Sharma and McNeill, 2009). Solubility of DNDI-VL-2098 was assessed up to 100 μM by spiking dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) stock solutions (10 μL, duplicate) into 990 μL buffer in a 96-well plate and placing at room temperature for 2 h. Calibration standards were prepared by spiking 5 μL of DMSO stock solutions into 995 μL acetonitrile:buffer (1:1) mixture.

However, there is no data in the literature on the impact of hepa

However, there is no data in the literature on the impact of hepatitis A universal vaccination program for such long time. The oldest programs have been implemented in the late 1990s [2] and [5]. In case of decline of protection over time, a shift in the age of new infections to older age groups, which may have more severe illness, may occur. In other economic studies, varying the rates of waning immunity in the sensitivity

analysis had no impact on cost-effectiveness ratio [34]. The hepatitis A vaccine is commercially available in single-dose vials, which reduces waste, but it occupies more space in the cold chain than vaccines presented in multi-dose vials. Additionally, due to recent introductions into the national childhood immunization schedule, of the 10-valent see more pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines, both also available in single dose vials, the cold chain is currently already under great selleck kinase inhibitor stress. The introduction of a new vaccine in the program requires a preliminary assessment of the cold chain capacity and the required adjustments and investments, which were not considered in our analyses. The first dose of the vaccine was assumed to be administered simultaneously to other vaccines already incorporated by the National Immunization Program and would not require a new visit to the Vaccination Clinic, but the second

dose would require a specific visit. The transportation cost to the health center to receive the second dose of the vaccine was considered when the analysis is carried out from the society perspective. Indirect costs related to the vaccination process were not included in the analyses considering that the Brazilian Ministry of Health provides standing orders for routine children vaccination, which is administered by nurses in health centers near the families’ home; a pre-vaccination medical visit is not required and not usual; and the vaccination process is quick.

Therefore, parents do not usually lose a workday to vaccinate their children. Most below economic studies of hepatitis A vaccine showed favorable cost-effectiveness results. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis A was shown a cost-saving strategy in areas of higher incidence of disease in Argentina [29] and USA [35] and [36]. In China, the immunization program has proved to be cost-saving in areas of lowest, low, intermediate and high endemicity of hepatitis A [37]. In other contexts, the parameters that mostly influenced the results of economic evaluations were administration cost and cost per vaccine dose, followed by the incidence of disease and medical costs, as in this study. The regional analysis showed some differences in the impact of a universal hepatitis A vaccination program in Brazil. Greater reduction in the number of icteric cases and deaths are expected in the “North” area. The results of the South model were more robust than the North and national models.

Data 7-Aryl-7H-bis [1] benzopyrano [4,3-b: 3', 4'-c] pyran-6, 8-

Data. 7-Aryl-7H-bis [1] benzopyrano [4,3-b: 3', 4'-c] pyran-6, 8-dione (4d): 0.5 g m.p 323 °C. IR (KBr): 1350, 1430, 1600, 1640–1650, 1700, 2820 cm-1. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.5–7.9 (12H,m,ArH),4.98 (1H,s,-CH-). m/z 419 (M+), 392, 317, 265, 196, 121, 94 and 60. Same results were obtained when the reaction was carried out at water bath temperatures. A mixture of DMSO (10 ml), acetic anhydride (5 ml) and (1e) (1.5 g) was kept at room temperature for 9 days. A yellow crystalline product

which separated out was HA-1077 molecular weight filtered, washed and crystallized from benzene and identified as 7-Aryl-7H-bis [1] benzopyrano [4,3-b: 3′, 4′-c] pyran-6, 8-dione (4e). The mother liquor upon addition of water and extraction with

ethyl this website acetate afforded a solid which was crystallized from benzene and identified as (9). Data. 7-Aryl-7H-bis [1] benzopyrano [4,3-b: 3', 4'-c] pyran-6, 8-dione(4e): (0.5 g) IR (KBr): 1250, 1360, 1600, 1655 and 1720 cm−1. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, CFT-20): δ 7.45–8. (12H,m,ArH),6.2 (1H,s,-CH-). m/z 422(M+), 409, 393, 317, 265, 176, 121 and 120. (Found C, 68.48; H, 2.58. C25H13NO7 required C,68.33; H, 2.96%). Product (9): m.p 271 °C; (1.6 g). IR (KBr): 1410, 1640, 1700, 1760, 2850 and 3350 cm−11H NMR (CDCl3 EM 390 90 MHz): δ 7–8.25(12H,m,ArH),4.75 (1H,s,-CH-), 3.77(2H,s,-CH2-), 2.84(1H,s,-OH-). m/z 487, 440, 365, 249, 175 and 121. (Found C, 64.18; H, 3.27. C26H17NO9 requires C,64.06; H,3.49%). At room temperature DMSO-acetic anhydride converts (1a) obtained easily by the reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin with benzaldehyde,5 to a novel product (3) in excellent yields. On the basis of its mass spectrum and elemental analysis the molecular formula of the compound comes out to be C25H14O6 .Two structures (2a) and (3) were possible for the compound but the former is ruled out on the basis of proton magnetic resonance (pmr). The Endonuclease 1H singlet at δ 4.73 can be assigned to the benzylic and allylic proton. The carbonyl bands at 1790, 1720 and 1680 cm−1

in the infrared spectrum are also at right values for saturated lactone, coumarin and benzoyl carbonyl groups respectively. The treatment of (la) with DMSO-acetic anhydride at 160 °C, proved destructive. At water bath temperature, however, a yellow crystalline solid (4a) gradually separated from the reaction mixture and was filtered off at the end of reaction. Its pmr spectrum shows in addition to thirteen aromatic protons, a singlet at δ 5.17 belonging to doubly allylic and benzylic methine proton suggesting structure (4a) for the compound which was further confirmed by infrared spectrum showing a broad signal at 1720 cm−1 and 1655 cm−1 for two, α–β-unsaturated lactone carbonyls and for enol ethers respectively.

In 2000, he was among the first initiators and active participant

In 2000, he was among the first initiators and active participants in the establishment of the Center for Ecological Research and Bioresources Development in Pushchino (Moscow region), which was created to promote reforms in FSU scientific research and to realize projects developed by RCT&HRB and the Russian Academy of Science institutes. Examples of projects and topics worked on in this new Center include the conservation of biodiversity, bioremediation Gefitinib clinical trial of oil-contaminated soils, and the search for antimicrobial and health-promoting bioactive compounds from microorganisms. As a restless inventor and generator of new ideas, Professor Borovick supported many innovations and initiatives of his

colleagues. Many doctoral theses were defended under his supervision. Many scientists and governing administrators were influenced by his unbridled passion for international collegiality and his work to benefit Russian

and international peace and science. While in America, he fell in love with the Rocky Mountains and Yellowstone National Park. During this time he worked and traveled in both countries and he enjoyed simple pleasures, such as fishing for trout on the Yellowstone River and hunting for mushrooms in the primal forests of Russia. He was a person of incredible courage and optimism. For many years, he quietly battled cancer. His will to live, his faith and determination to make a difference, and his love Selleckchem Epacadostat for his family, friends, and colleagues supported Thiamine-diphosphate kinase him through this difficult time. He was

an example to all who knew him. Roman was happily married. His beloved daughter Helen and her beautiful son, Roman, were a source of great pride for him. Despite living most of his youth and his adult life during the Cold War, Professor Borovick never became discouraged from forming international collaborations with a myriad of countries, including the FSU’s central opponent, the U.S. In private conversations, he left an indelible impression on all who heard his stories of internal struggle to work within a system and within a country that he and his family had not chosen for themselves. He spent his life, both in this system and after its eventual demise, struggling to unite people through the exchange of science, technology, and medicine. This endeavor arose from his deep personal conviction for the need to increase cultural sharing, learning, and openness among countries. This attitude was best summed up in an interview with CBS where he was quoted as saying, “Even 10 years ago, I could not have believed this kind of partnership was possible. We knew the Cold War was madness—but we didn’t think it could change.” Through his own individual efforts, he helped Russia to effect this massive change. “
“The authors would like to apologise that a sentence in the abstract was incorrect.

However, improved thermal stability promises a reduction in manuf

However, improved thermal stability promises a reduction in manufacturing and distribution costs through elimination of vaccine wastage PLX4032 order and refrigeration infrastructure. Because many of the formulations identified do not contain animal-derived products such as human albumin or porcine gelatin, there are additional advantages in the areas of cost of goods, regulatory

concerns, and ethical/religious considerations. As an alternative approach to complete reformulation, a new diluent may be used for reconstituting existing lyophilized vaccines. For example, M-VAC™ vaccine reconstituted with a simple, inexpensive diluent (50 mM sodium citrate dihydrate pH 7.4) showed 0.5 log loss after 4 h at 40 °C (data not shown) as compared to 2.5 log loss when reconstituted with water for injection. The development of a robust, infectivity-based screening process for identifying thermostable vaccine formulations offers remarkable promise for vaccine development and reformulation TGFbeta inhibitor of both heat-sensitive (e.g. varicella, rotavirus, and OPV vaccines) and cold-sensitive (H. influenzae type b, pneumococcal polysaccharide, hepatitis vaccines) [42] vaccine products. This work was funded by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Dr. R. Dhere at

the Serum Institute of India provided the M-VAC™ vaccine. P. Balaji, K. Briasco, E. Cash, K. Chmielewski, T. Dowie, A. Gandhi, R. Gyory, S. Hong, D. Klein, C. Lee, K. Marks, J. Matamoros, D. Pristin,

B. Pullman, I. Risenberg, Thalidomide K. Sebes, A. Tebbe, and L. Yin provided technical assistance. In particular, we are grateful to C. Burke, D. Carucci, J. Carpenter, J. Dingerdissen, R. Dobbelaer, M. Gottlieb, J. van Hoof, D. Lans, R. Middaugh, P. Molino, T. Monath, V. Truong, D. Volkin, and S. Weiner for their project guidance. “
“Timely vaccination is important to obtain adequate disease protection [1], [2] and [3]. Delayed immunisation is a strong risk factor for disease; in particular for pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type B invasive disease [1], [2] and [4]. It has been shown that late administration of the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is associated with reduced survival, while early administration improves survival [5]. Some studies have shown that high vaccination coverage rates for individual vaccines do not necessarily imply timely vaccination [3], [6], [7], [8] and [9]. There may also be unspecific effects of vaccines that can be influenced by the timing of the vaccinations, with potential negative consequences of delayed immunisation [10]. Thus, it is important to take timeliness into account, as relying only on vaccination status can lead to a false assumption of disease protection.

The total cell numbers in BAL fluid of OVA sensitized and challen

The total cell numbers in BAL fluid of OVA sensitized and challenged mice increased

Androgen Receptor antagonist over 10-fold to 650 000 compared with those in OVA sensitized but not challenged mice (57 000) indicating severe pulmonary inflammation in these animals. Interestingly, mice which received either Qβ-Eot or Qβ-IL-5 showed reduced inflammation in the airways ( Fig. 3A). Specifically, the total number of infiltrating cells in Qβ-Eot immunized mice reached 250 000 and Qβ-IL-5 immunized mice reached 200 000. A further reduction in infiltrating cell number (140 000) was achieved by the combined vaccination of both vaccines. Since eosinophils are the main effector cells during airway inflammation, we quantified their numbers in BAL fluid by differential cell staining (Fig. NU7441 concentration 3B). OVA sensitized and challenged mice vaccinated with Qβ-IL-5 had 97% (p = 0.012) fewer eosinophils

relative, while Qβ-Eot vaccinated mice had an 80% reduction in eosinophils numbers (p = 0.031) relative to animals that were OVA sensitized and challenged, but not vaccinated. This result demonstrates that active immunization against either IL-5 or eotaxin efficiently reduces eosinophilic airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Mice vaccinated with both vaccines showed a 99% reduction in infiltrating eosinophils relative to the positive control (p = 0.005). Nonetheless, a small population of eosinophils remained in the BAL. In contrast no change

in the numbers of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes could be observed in these vaccinated mice (data GPX6 not shown). While the use of two vaccines in combination was numerically better than either eotaxin Qβ or IL-5-Qβ vaccine alone, the result did not achieve statistical significance when analyzed by 4-way ANOVA. In a separate experiment we compared the total number of cells and eosinophils in BAL obtained from mice immunized with Qβ or IL-5 Qβ (Fig. 3C and D). For Qβ immunized mice, the total number of cells and eosinophils in the BALF were in a comparable range to those for the unvaccinated animals in the experiment described above (see Fig. 3A and B). For the group immunized with Qβ-IL-5 there was a 72% reduction in the number of total cells in the BALF (p = 0.038) and a 97% reduction in the number of eosinophils (p = 0.008). To determine if the reduction in inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the BAL following immunization reflected cellular changes in the lung, H&E (data not shown) and Lendrum staining of lung sections were also performed (Fig. 4). Histological analysis indicated that mice which were sensitized but not challenged with OVA had no (or only minimal) histopathological lesions (Fig. 4A). In contrast, OVA sensitized and challenged mice developed histopathological lesions typical of those described for this model of allergic airway inflammation.

91 min) and easy separation of

91 min) and easy separation of click here other plant constituents present in formulation. Therefore, this method provides ample opportunities, which can be extended into quantification of plant phytochemicals, checking authenticity of other herbal formulations and facilitating routine quality control analysis of commercial ayurvedic

formulations, containing Lavangadi Vati (Fig. 3C). Caturjata Churna is polyherbal ayurvedic formulation used for treatment of cold and cough. 23 Several studies such as thin layer chromatography and HPTLC fingerprinting after post column derivatization with vanillin-sulphuric acid have been carried out for standardization, quantification and quality control analysis of in house and marketed formulations of Caturjata Churna to determine its potent therapeutic efficacy in herbal

medicines. 23 However, this technique offers several shortcomings like it involves relatively high reagent consumption and are difficult for high sensitivity analysis. Another method has been shown to be validated EGFR inhibitor in separating and quantifying eugenol from clove and cinnamon oils by HPLC–UV analysis after pre-column derivatization and use of fluorescent labelling reagents. 20 However, this method involves use of NBD-F labelling fluorescent reagents which is highly toxic and expensive. Secondly, retention time recorded old was 12.1 min for eugenol which is more time consuming process. Third major disadvantage of this methodology include possibility of derivatizing reagents mixing directly with samples (analyte) of interest and the reaction efficacy easily influenced by coexisting components present in formulations during analysis.

In conclusion, such reagents require cumbersome reactions that may also require heating protocols or methods along with post reaction clean up. On the other hand, this paper successfully reports quantification and separation of eugenol from Caturjata Churna without the use of derivatizing reagents, albeit expensive fluorescent reagents and produces very accurate and highly sensitive results. Hence, further research was needed to validate and produce reliable results which can be stretched to set quality specifications for composition and concentration of phytoconstituents needed for herbal medicines. Thus, we have fully validated RP-HPLC method, which can be used reliably for estimation of eugenol and other phytochemicals, with high reproducible results and be easily employed for detecting the difference in quality control parameters and set specifications for plant phytoconstituents (Fig. 2B).

The questions reflect performance on activities covering domestic

The questions reflect performance on activities covering domestic chores,

household maintenance, service to others and social activities over the last three months. Each activity is rated with four possible responses from 0–3, where a higher score reflects more participation. For the purposes of this study, and in line with recommendations, community participation was reported as a score out of 72. Further details on study protocols and data collection are in Appendix 1 on the eAddenda. We undertook an see more a priori power calculation to determine sample size based on primary outcome measures. About 50% of non-ambulatory patients walk independently at discharge ( Dean and Mackey 1992). We designed the study to detect a 25% increase in the proportion of non-ambulatory patients walking independently, ie, from 50% to 75%. The smallest number of participants to detect this difference between two proportions estimated from independent samples with 80% power at a two-tailed 5% significance level was 65 participants per group, ie, 130 participants in total ( Fleiss 1981). The secondary

outcomes were analysed using independent sample t-tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. The mean difference between the groups and a 95% CI was calculated for all the outcome measures. For participants who withdrew or died, data were censored at the time of withdrawal or death. One hundred and twenty-six participants were below recruited to the study between August 2002 and September 2008. The baseline characteristics of the participants are presented in Table 1. Sixty-four participants Buparlisib research buy were allocated to the experimental group and 62 to the control group. Two participants in the experimental group withdrew because of anxiety when using the treadmill. At 6 months after admission to the study, there were 59 participants in the experimental group and 60 in the control group. Figure 1 outlines the flow of participants through the trial. Twenty-five physiotherapists, on average 10 years (SD 9) since graduating, provided the

intervention. Six (24%) had relevant postgraduate qualifications and 12 (48%) had research experience. On average, therapists were involved in the study for 3 years (SD 2, range 1 to 6) and trained 5 participants (SD 5, range 1 to 19). Most therapists trained both experimental and control participants, although 8 (32%) trained only one participant each. Rehabilitation units at six centres participated in the trial: three had on-site acute stroke units, two were rehabilitation units only, and one had its acute stroke unit at a different location. The annual throughput of stroke patients averaged 314 (SD 121, range 118 to 444), and the physiotherapist: patient ratio averaged 1:8. The number of participants in each group was similar within each centre (Table 1).

05 were considered significant During the 8 influenza seasons, 4

05 were considered significant. During the 8 influenza seasons, 4996 adults with acute respiratory illness seeking medical care were enrolled. Influenza infection was laboratory confirmed for 1393 persons; 1020 (73%) had type A infection, 369 (26%) had type B infection, and 4 (<1%) were positive for both type A and B. Most (84%) influenza A infections were H3N2 subtype, followed by H1N1 (10%) and H1N1pdm09 (6%). The number of influenza A positive study participants ranged from 18

in the 2005–06 season to 356 in the 2007–08 season. The number of influenza B positive study participants ranged from 5 in the 2006–07 season to 144 in the 2007–08 season. Among persons with laboratory confirmed influenza and known vaccination status,

583 (42%) were males, 540 (39%) had at least one high risk condition, 316 (23%) selleck were prescribed antiviral medications, and 31 (2%) were enrolled after admission to the hospital. The proportion vaccinated differed with respect to age, gender, and presence of high risk conditions (Table 1). In particular, influenza vaccination was more common in older adults and women. The median age was 55 years [interquartile range (IQR): 41, 69] among adults who were vaccinated and 41 years (IQR: 30, 52) among adults who were not vaccinated (p < 0.001). Vaccination was also more common among persons with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disorders, and other high risk conditions KU-55933 mouse compared to those without these high risk conditions. Similar patterns were observed when examined by influenza type. Seventy-nine patients with laboratory confirmed influenza were admitted to the hospital within 14 days of symptom onset: 62 (6%) of 1020 with influenza A and 17 (5%) of 369 with influenza B. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 3 days (IQR: 2–5 days). Seventy (89%) had discharge diagnoses

codes that were consistent with an acute respiratory illness or exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease. Among hospitalized Tryptophan synthase patients, those who were older were more likely to be vaccinated compared to those aged 20–49 years and those with a cardiovascular high risk condition were more likely to be vaccinated compared to those without a cardiovascular high risk condition (Table 2). Vaccination status among hospitalized patients was not associated with gender or the other high risk conditions examined. Among patients with laboratory confirmed influenza, influenza vaccination was not associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization following onset overall or by influenza type (Table 3). The propensity score adjusted odd ratio of hospitalization for vaccinated compared to unvaccinated patients was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.88), 1.35 (95% CI: 0.71, 2.57), and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.21, 2.15) overall, for type A infection, and for type B infection, respectively.

A detailed description of the experimental and control group proc

A detailed description of the experimental and control group procedures can be found in Appendix 1 (see the eAddenda for Appendix 1). Treatment was planned to result in 60 hours of positioning and 51 hours of NMES/TENS. All procedures

were performed by the local trial coordinator or instructed nursing staff. Nursing staff monitored compliance to the intervention by logging each session on a record sheet, which was always kept in the vicinity of the participant’s bed. During the first 8 weeks of the trial, prescription of pain and spasticity medication as well INCB024360 ic50 as content of physical and occupational therapy sessions for the arm were also monitored. The primary outcome measures were passive range of arm motion and pain in the hemiplegic shoulder. All goniometric assessments were performed by two observers using a fluid-filled goniometera.

Inter-observer reliability of this technique was high (de Jong et al 2012). The presence of shoulder pain was checked using the first (yes/no) question of the ShoulderQ (Turner-Stokes and Jackson 2006). The secondary outcome measures were timing and severity of poststroke shoulder pain, performance of real-life passive and basic daily active arm activities, hypertonia and spasticity, arm motor control and shoulder subluxation. All measurements were carried out in the same fixed order by the same two trained Panobinostat assessors. Every effort was made to motivate participants to undergo all planned measurements even after withdrawal from the study. Passive range of shoulder external rotation, flexion and abduction, elbow extension, forearm supination, wrist extension with extended and flexed fingers were assessed because these movements often develop restrictions in range as a result else of imposed immobility, with muscle contractures causing a typical flexion posture of the hemiplegic arm. The (entire) ShoulderQ was administered in participants who indicated that

they had shoulder pain. This questionnaire assesses timing and severity of pain by means of eight verbal questions and three vertical visual graphic rating scales. We were primarily interested in the answer to the (verbal) question How severe is your shoulder pain overall? (1= mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe, 4 = extremely severe) and pain severity measured at rest, on movement, and at night using the 10-cm vertical visual graphic rating scales. The ShoulderQ is sensitive ( Turner-Stokes and Jackson 2006) and responsive to change in pain experience ( Turner-Stokes and Rusconi 2003). Performance of basic functional activities of daily life involving the passive arm was assessed using the Leeds Adult/Arm Spasticity Impact Scale ( Ashford et al 2008).