“Dengue is an acute mosquito borne viral infection caused


“Dengue is an acute mosquito borne viral infection caused by one of the four distinct serotype of dengue viruses (type 1-4), belonging to flavivirus family. Dengue fever, an arboviral infection is known to cause various neurological complications. Commonly reported neurological manifestations associated with dengue infection are encephalopathy, myelopathy, stroke, Guillain-Barre syndrome and hypokalemic paralysis. Brachial amyotrophy associated with dengue infection were not described previously. Here, we describe three patients presenting with brachial neuritis associated with dengue infection. Dengue infection should be considered

in the etiological list of brachial neuritis in dengue endemic areas, especially if preceded by history of febrile illness compatible with dengue illness.”
“Among the many clinical manifestations of light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, musculoskeletal involvement

is Birinapant VX-770 research buy rarely reported. We describe the case of a 72-year-old woman who was referred to our rheumatology department for fixed flexion contractures of the fingers that developed concomitantly with a decline in general health. Macroglossia and recent-onset dyspnea were noted. Investigations, which included a tongue biopsy, established the diagnosis of kappa light-chain amyloidosis with soft tissue, bone, and cardiac deposits. Melphalan and dexamethasone therapy was successful in stabilizing the clinical and laboratory abnormalities within 6 months. This case is remarkable in that the musculoskeletal manifestations were at the forefront of the clinical picture and led to the diagnosis. (C) 2009 Societe Francaise de Rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Male Selleckchem JNK inhibitor Anopheles mosquitoes that swarm rely in part on features of the environment including visual stimuli to locate swarms. Swarming is believed to be

the primary behaviour during which mating occurs in the field, but is not a common behaviour in the laboratory. Features that stimulate male Anopheles gambiae G3 strain swarming were created in novel large indoor cages. Methods: The following visual features were tested in all combinations to determine which were important for swarm formation. Large cages and fading ceiling lights at dusk alone did not stimulate swarming while a dark foreground and contrasting illuminated background with a contrasting landmark stimulated and localized swarm formation during artificial twilight. Given the need to test transgenic strains in as natural a setting as possible, in this study it was investigated whether induced swarm behaviour and cage size would affect relative mating performance of wild-type and transgenic beta 2Ppo1 and beta 2Ppo2 A. gambiae sexually sterile males. Results: Even using a mosquito colony that has been in laboratory culture for 39 years, swarming behaviour was induced by this novel arrangement.

Seventeen percent of the variation in the uMMA ratio could be exp

Seventeen percent of the variation in the uMMA ratio could be explained by plasma holotranscobalamin and sex; total vitamin B-12 intake and measures of renal function and gastric function made only a small contribution to the model. The uMMA ratio was lower in people with moderately impaired renal function.\n\nConclusions: Plasma holotranscobalamin and sex were the most important determinants of uMMA ratio in elderly people with no clinical diagnosis of renal impairment. This biomarker might underestimate vitamin B-12 deficiency in a population in which renal impairment is prevalent. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCJN83921062. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:686-93.”
“”Ethnobotanical

survey of plants popularly used Geneticin as anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory in Pirizal, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, MT, Brazil”. An ethnobotanical

survey was conduced to study the vegetal species from Pantanal, in the district of Pirizal-MT, popularly used as anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer. Ethnobotanical data were collected through open interviews Selleck Blebbistatin and ethnopharmacology questionnaire with 38 local informers, in the age group of 25 to 75 years old. The local name, the part normally used, the mode of preparation and the administration route were,asked to them. A bibliographic review of the plants most cited in the study was carried out using the conventional databases. A total of 49 species were cited belonging to 47 genera and 32 families, with,emphasizing the Fabaceae family: The plants most cited were Lafoensia pacari St. Hil (9.2%), Hyptis crenata Pohl (8.8%), Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit (6.7%), Stachytarpheta cayenensis (L.C. Rich) Vahl (5.8%), Waltheria indica L. (5%), Strychnos pseudoquina St.Hil (4.2%) and Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke (3.3%). The part of the plant most cited was the leaf (57.1%), the most used administration route in the selleck compound treatment of ulcers was oral (100%),, in

the form of teas (75%), while in the inflammations, topical baths were preferentially used (60%). The literature review indicated. the need for further chemical-pharmacological studies on Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth) Ducke and Hyptis crenata Pohl.”
“Background Studies in young male conscripts suggest that low IQ scores are associated with an increased risk of suicide. Mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Aim To investigate the association of IQ, as indexed by the national adult reading test (NART), with the incidence of, and recovery from, suicidal thoughts. Method An 18-month follow-up of 2,278 of the adults who took part in the Britain’s second national psychiatric morbidity survey who completed the NART at baseline. Results There was no evidence that poor performance on the NART was associated with an increased incidence of suicidal thoughts over the 18 month follow-up (adjusted odds ratio per 10 unit increase in NART-IQ 1.08 (95% CI 0.86-1.36).

These deposits could be confirmed by anatomical dissection of the

These deposits could be confirmed by anatomical dissection of the device and by SEM. Device

2 showed no signs of clot formation in MDCT using the same VRT settings. It was demonstrated that MDCT with VRT is able to detect thrombotic GSK-3 inhibitor deposits in ECMO devices under ex vivo conditions. MDCT allows direct visualization of the actual thrombus load of a used ECMO device as well as the quantification of the thrombus volume and could, therefore, play a significant role in better understanding the oxygenator thrombosis in modern ECMO treatment.”
“A novel nitridosilicate phosphor, BaSi7N10:Eu2+, was synthesized via the nitridation of Ba1-xEuxSi alloy. Oxide impurities in the product can be significantly reduced by the use of alloy precursor to obtain a single phase product. The synthesized BaSi7N10:Eu2+ absorbs strongly in the UV-part of the electromagnetic spectrum and exhibits bluish-green light with a peak wavelength

at 475 nm. When temperature is increasing, its emission intensity is decreasing with the broadening full widths at half maximum (FWHM). Interestingly, the afterglow emission of Eu2+ (4f(6)5d(1)- bigger than 4f(7)) could be observed after switching off the 280 nm excitation source, which to the best of our knowledge is found for the first time. This simple, inexpensive and high-yield synthesis route has a significant potential to be applied to other nitrides. (C) 2013 Elsevier IPI-145 mouse B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Genetic polymorphisms, gender and age all influence the risk of developing chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury (PNI). It is known that there are significant inter-strain differences in pain hypersensitivity in strains of mice after PNI. In response to PNI, one of the earliest events is thought to be the disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). The study of BSCB

integrity after PNI may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms buy ACY-738 that contribute to chronic pain. Results: Here we used in vivo dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to establish a timecourse for BSCB permeability following PNI, produced by performing a spared nerve injury (SNI). From this longitudinal study, we found that the SNI group had a significant increase in BSCB permeability over time throughout the entire spinal cord. The BSCB opening had a delayed onset and the increase in permeability was transient, returning to control levels just over one day after the surgery. We also examined inter-strain differences in BSCB permeability using five mouse strains (B10, C57BL/6J, CD-1, A/J and BALB/c) that spanned the range of pain hypersensitivity. We found a significant increase in BSCB permeability in the SNI group that was dependent on strain but that did not correlate with the reported strain differences in PNI-induced tactile hypersensitivity.

Patients/Methods: Consecutive patients receiving at least 3 month

Patients/Methods: Consecutive patients receiving at least 3 months of anticoagulant for an acute PE were included in a prospective cohort study. Ventilation/perfusion lung scan, echocardiography, 6-min walk test, thrombophilia and hemostatic variables were performed 6 12 months after PE. Perfusion defect was defined as a perfusion defect in at least two segments. Results: Seventy-three out of 254 patients (29%) had perfusion defects during follow-up (median 12 months) and were more likely to have dyspnea, had a higher systolic pulmonary arterial pressure [39 mmHg (SD) (12) vs. 31 mmHg (8); P < 0.001] and walked a shorter distance during the 6-min walk test [ 374 m( 122) vs. 427 m( 99); P = 0.004]. Age

[odds ratio (OR) 1.35; 95% confidence interval

(CI), 1.11-1.63], the time OICR-9429 inhibitor interval between symptom onset and diagnosis (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31), pulmonary vascular obstruction at the onset of PE (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) and previous venous thromboembolism (OR 2.06; 95% CI, 1.03-4.11) were independent predictors of perfusion defect after treatment of acute PE. Total tissue factor pathway inhibitor concentration was associated with perfusion defects. Conclusions: Perfusion defects are associated with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and functional limitation. Age, longer times between symptom onset and diagnosis, initial pulmonary vascular obstruction and previous venous thromboembolism were associated with perfusion defects.”
“Epidural analgesia has demonstrated superiority over conventional analgesia in controlling pain following open colorectal

resections. Controversy exists find more regarding Kinase Inhibitor Library in vitro cost-effectiveness and postoperative outcomes.\n\nThe Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002-2010) was retrospectively reviewed for elective open colorectal surgeries performed for benign and malignant conditions with or without the use of epidural analgesia. Multivariate regression analysis was used to compare outcomes between epidural and conventional analgesia.\n\nA total 888,135 patients underwent open colorectal resections. Epidural analgesia was only used in 39,345 (4.4 %) cases. Epidurals were more likely to be used in teaching hospitals and rectal cancer cases. On multivariate analysis, in colonic cases, epidural analgesia lowered hospital charges by US$4,450 (p < 0.001) but was associated with longer length of stay by 0.16 day (p < 0.05) and a higher incidence of ileus (OR = 1.17; p < 0.01). In rectal cases, epidural analgesia was again associated with lower hospital charges by US$4,340 (p < 0.001) but had no effect on ileus and length of stay. The remaining outcomes such as mortality, respiratory failure, pneumonia, anastomotic leak, urinary tract infection, and retention were unaffected by the use of epidurals.\n\nEpidural analgesia in open colorectal surgery is safe but does not add major clinical benefits over conventional analgesia.

In this study, we examined the possibility of using long-term vol

In this study, we examined the possibility of using long-term volunteer monitoring data as the source of dietary information for 15 resident bird species in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The data were collected from

field observations reported by volunteers of regional naturalist groups. Based on these monitoring data, we calculated the monthly dietary composition of each bird species directly, and we also estimated unidentified items within the reported foraging episodes using Bayesian models that contained additional information regarding foraging locations. Next, to examine the validity of the estimated dietary compositions, we compared them with the dietary information for focal birds based buy AS1842856 on stomach analysis methods, collected from past literatures. The dietary trends estimated from the monitoring data were largely consistent with the general food habits determined from the previous studies of focal birds. Thus, the estimates based on the volunteer monitoring data successfully detected noticeable seasonal shifts in many of the birds from plant SBE-β-CD materials to animal diets during spring-summer. Comparisons with stomach analysis data supported the qualitative validity of the monitoring-based dietary information and the effectiveness of the Bayesian models for improving the estimates. This

comparison suggests that one advantage of using monitoring data is its ability to detect dietary items such as fleshy fruits, flower nectar, and vertebrates. These results emphasize the potential importance of observation data collecting and mining by citizens, especially free buy Volasertib descriptive observation data, for use in bird ecology studies.”
“The exact mechanisms underlying the weak bronchodilator effect of K(ATP) channel openers on cholinergic stimulations is unknown. The present study was designed

to examine the relaxant efect of pinacidil in guinea-pig trachea stimulated with carbachol by the presence of calcium sensitizer inhibitors; HA 1077, a rhoA kinase inhibitor, and chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor. Adenosine (10 mu M) was used as other contractile agent for comparison. Tracheal tissues were isolated from ovalbumin sensitized guineapigs and changes in tension were recorded isometrically. Pinacidil (1-100 mu M, cumulatively) and HA 1077 (0.01-30 mu M, cumulatively) produced concentration-dependent relaxations in unstimulated tisues. The relaxant response to pinacidil decreased in carbachol contracted tissues, but increased in adenosine-stimulated tissues. Pretreatment of the tissues with HA 1077 (0.1 mu M) and chelerythrine (10 mu M) increased the pinacidil-induced relaxations by similar to%100 and %40, respectively. Glibenclamide, a KATP channel blocker, partially antagonized the pinacidil response in contracted tissues. Glibenclamide also inhibited the carbachol and adenosine induced contractions. These results suggest that diminish effect of pinacidil may have related to the enhanced calcium sensitization by cholinergic stimulation.

Human CYP1B1 (hCYP1B1) is an extrahepatic CYP closely related to

Human CYP1B1 (hCYP1B1) is an extrahepatic CYP closely related to hCYP1A1 and is overexpressed in the lungs of smokers. Moreover, hCYP1B1 has been found to be overexpressed in cancers selleckchem derived from a number of tissue types, as well as in pre-malignant prostate tumours, implicating

overexpression of hCYP1B1 as a risk factor for extrahepatic carcinogenesis. It has been demonstrated previously that hCYP1B1 is inhibited by dioxin-like PCBs, but whether or not it is uncoupled has not been investigated. In the current study, the ability of three dioxin-like PCBs 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB169) to inhibit hCYP1B1 and stimulate the formation of ROS in V79MZ cells (which lack endogenous CYPs) expressing hCYP1B1 was demonstrated. Moreover, the generation of ROS was also associated with increases in parameters of oxidative stress related to genotoxicity (DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation). For PCB169, these effects were time and concentration dependent. These data identify a novel mechanism of genotoxicity for dioxin-like PCBs, as well as providing further evidence that overexpression of hCYP1B1 is a risk factor for extrahepatic carcinogenesis.”
“The human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is an important opportunistic pathogen whose disease prevalence continues to increase with the growing immunocompromised

population. To date, the major determinant of replication in cell culture

has not INCB018424 been formally proven. BIN exists as archetype virus and rearranged variants, which are classified based on the DNA sequence of their non-coding control regions (NCCRs). The archetype BKV NCCR is divided into five blocks of sequence and rearranged variants contain deletions and duplications of these blocks. In this study, a genetic system was developed and used to identify the major determinant of replication ability in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, the natural host cell of BKV. This system was also used to analyze NCCR variants isolated from an immunocompromised patient which SNX-5422 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor contain assorted rearrangement patterns and functional differences. This study solidifies the NCCR as the major genetic determinant of BIN replication ability in vitro. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The defect left after the resection of an extensive venous malformation in the cheek was reconstructed with a combined neurovascular gracilis muscle and patched jejunal free flap. At 25-year follow-up, the patient demonstrated good oral competence, had an adequate oral aperture allowing dental hygiene, and had symmetrical corners of the mouth.”
“The presence of corpus luteum may have a local effect on metabolite composition of follicular fluid (FF) and could indirectly influence follicular development and oocyte quality.

Methods: Demographics and peri-operative data of 34 donors underg

Methods: Demographics and peri-operative data of 34 donors undergoing right hepatectomy were analysed by Spearman’s correlation (data in means +/- SD, P < 0.05 = statistically significant). Re-admissions for pleural effusions were tracked. Results:

Donors were 26-56 (43.3 +/- 9.1) years old, body mass index (kg/ m(2)) was 27.7 +/- 4.2, liver resected (%) was 58 +/- 7 and EBL (mL) was 1505 +/- 927. A larger hepatectomy correlated with lower Alb at 3 weeks (P = 0.03) and also with a higher early (P = 0.025) Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor and late Tbili (P = 0.037). Larger blood loss determined low Alb in the first week (P = 0.013), still noticeable 3 weeks postoperatively (P = 0.047). Re-admissions for pleural effusion were not associated with the size of the liver resection or postoperative Alb changes. Conclusions: A remaining liver size-dependent reduced synthetic hepatic function may explain the persistent low Alb Z-DEVD-FMK supplier that becomes apparent at end of the preoperative Albs half-life. A size-related diminished metabolic liver capacity results in early and late elevated

Tbili. Prospective studies are needed to better understand the impact of resection size on hepatic physiology, donor care and clinical outcomes.”
“Macroautophagy has been shown to be important for the cellular remodelling required for Leishmania differentiation. We now demonstrate that L. major contains a functional ATG12-ATG5 conjugation system, which is required for ATG8-dependent autophagosome formation. Nascent autophagosomes were found commonly associated with the mitochondrion. L. major mutants lacking ATG5 (Delta atg5) were viable as promastigotes but were unable to form autophagosomes, had morphological abnormalities including a much reduced flagellum, were less able to differentiate and had greatly reduced virulence to macrophages and

mice. Analyses of the lipid metabolome of Delta atg5 revealed marked elevation of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in comparison to wild type parasites. The Delta atg5 mutants also had increased mitochondrial mass but reduced mitochondrial membrane DMH1 potential and higher levels of reactive oxygen species. These findings indicate that the lack of ATG5 and autophagy leads to perturbation of the phospholipid balance in the mitochondrion, possibly through ablation of membrane use and conjugation of mitochondrial PE to ATG8 for autophagosome biogenesis, resulting in a dysfunctional mitochondrion with impaired oxidative ability and energy generation. The overall result of this is reduced virulence.”
“Background: Once highly abundant, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.; Anguillidae; Teleostei) is considered to be critically endangered and on the verge of extinction, as the stock has declined by 90-99% since the 1980s. Yet, the species is poorly characterized at molecular level with little sequence information available in public databases.


“An increasing amount of research has shown a relationship


“An increasing amount of research has shown a relationship between hormonal exposure and functional lateralisation. In this study different sources of hormonal exposure were examined: prenatal exposure, estimated using the 2D:4D ratio, and later life exposure through examining the effects of hormone replacement therapy. In addition to considering multiple sources of hormonal exposure, three tests

of functional lateralisation were used: two versions of the chimeric faces test, one using positive emotion and the other using negative emotion, and the landmark task. The same effects were found across all three measures of lateratisation. Lower 2D:4D ratios, which indicate high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure, were associated with stronger selleck compound right hemisphere dominance. see more Later life hormonal exposure was not found to be associated with any of the lateratisation measures. This finding suggests a relationship between prenatal hormonal exposure and brain organisation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Flow cytometry-based assays that take advantage of fluorescent protein (FP)-expressing malaria parasites have proven to be valuable tools for quantification and sorting of specific subpopulations of parasite-infected red blood cells. However, identification of rare subpopulations Alisertib datasheet of parasites

using green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelling is complicated by autofluorescence (AF) of red blood cells and low signal from transgenic parasites. It has

been suggested that cell sorting yield could be improved by using filters that precisely match the emission spectrum of GFP.\n\nMethods: Detection of transgenic Plasmodium falciparum parasites expressing either tdTomato or GFP was performed using a flow cytometer with interchangeable optical filters. Parasitaemia was evaluated using different optical filters and, after optimization of optics, the GFP-expressing parasites were sorted and analysed by microscopy after cytospin preparation and by imaging cytometry.\n\nResults: A new approach to evaluate filter performance in flow cytometry using two-dimensional dot blot was developed. By selecting optical filters with narrow bandpass (BP) and maximum position of filter emission close to GFP maximum emission in the FL1 channel (510/20, 512/20 and 517/20; dichroics 502LP and 466LP), AF was markedly decreased and signal-background improve dramatically. Sorting of GFP-expressing parasite populations in infected red blood cells at 90 or 95% purity with these filters resulted in 50-150% increased yield when compared to the standard filter set-up. The purity of the sorted population was confirmed using imaging cytometry and microscopy of cytospin preparations of sorted red blood cells infected with transgenic malaria parasites.

Its structure was designated on the basis of NMR and X-ray crysta

Its structure was designated on the basis of NMR and X-ray crystallography data. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) on immune effector cells recognizes multiple VEGFR inhibitor stress-inducible ligands. NKG2D single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes were related to the levels of cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Indeed, these polymorphisms were also located in NKG2F. Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) is used for whole genome amplification (WGA) that can amplify very small

genomic DNA templates into microgram with whole genome coverage. This is particularly useful in the cases of limited amount of valuable DNA samples requiring multi-locus genotyping. In this study, we evaluated the quality and applicability of IMDA to genetic studies in terms of sensitivity, efficiency of IMDA re-amplification and stability of IMDA products. The smallest amount of DNA to be effectively amplified by IMDA was 200 pg yielding final DNA of approximately 16 mu g within 1.5 h. IMDA could be re-amplified only once (second round of amplification), and could be kept for 5 months at 4 degrees C and more than a year at -20 degrees C without loosing genome coverage. The amplified products find more were used successfully

to setup a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer for SNP typing of the NKG2D/F genes. The NKG2D/F multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contained six PCR

mixtures for detecting 10 selected SNPs, including 8 NKG2D/F SNP haplotypes and 2 additional NKG2D coding SNPs. This typing procedure will be applicable in both clinical and research laboratories. Thus, our data provide useful information and limitations for utilization of genome-wide GF120918 supplier amplification using IMDA and its application for multiplex NKG2D/F typing.”
“The Haemophilia Registry of the Swiss Haemophilia Society is currently more than 12 years old. We present here the data as from October 31, 2012. Registered are patients with haemophilia A and B, von Willebrand disease with VWF:R-Co < 10% and other rare factor deficiencies. For this latter group, inclusion in the Registry depends on the clinical relevance of the bleeding disorder, not on the factor level. Data come directly from the Swiss haemophilia reference and treatment centers and should be updated once a year. Currently 967 patients are registered, the majority (587) presenting with haemophilia A. Disease severity is graded according to ISTH criteria. Basic epidemiological findings are similar to those from larger registries in Europe, Canada or the USA.

This review addresses possible common signaling pathways that mig

This review addresses possible common signaling pathways that might promote both structural and electrical remodeling of the atria, thus contributing to atrial fibrillation perpetuation.Recent findingsSustained atrial fibrillation selleck chemical may trigger an inflammatory response leading to activation of myofibroblasts and to the release of cytokines such as transforming growth factor- and platelet-derived growth factor, as well as profibrotic proteins such as galectin-3. Activation of signaling cascades involving such proteins is critical

for the development of fibrosis and may also lead to ion channel dysfunction, which, along with myocyte apoptosis and extracellular matrix generation and turnover, likely contributes to both electrical and structural remodeling and predisposes to atrial fibrillation.SummaryIdentifying upstream strategies targeting molecular pathways that are common to fibrosis and electrical remodeling leading to atrial fibrillation perpetuation is highly desirable. This would facilitate finding new target genes with pleiotropic effects on the expression

of ion channel proteins in myocytes and profibrotic molecules in nonmyocyte cells that are important for pathologic remodeling, which could become an important goal in persistent atrial fibrillation therapy.”
“Antimicrobials are widely used in preventive and curative medicine in animals. Benefits from curative use are clear – it allows sick animals https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jib-04.html to be healthy with a gain in human welfare. The case for preventive use of antimicrobials is less clear cut with debates on the value of antimicrobials as growth promoters in the intensive livestock industries. The possible benefits from the use of antimicrobials need to be balanced against their cost and the increased risk of emergence

of resistance due to their use in animals. The study examines the importance of animals in society and how the role and management of animals is changing including the use of antimicrobials. It proposes an economic framework to assess the trade-offs of anti-microbial use and examines the current level Proteasome inhibitor of data collection and analysis of these trade-offs. An exploratory review identifies a number of weaknesses. Rarely are we consistent in the frameworks applied to the economic assessment anti-microbial use in animals, which may well be due to gaps in data or the prejudices of the analysts. There is a need for more careful data collection that would allow information on (i) which species and production systems antimicrobials are used in, (ii) what active substance of antimicrobials and the application method and (iii) what dosage rates. The species need to include companion animals as well as the farmed animals as it is still not known how important direct versus indirect spread of resistance to humans is.