Methods: Consecutive patients with symptoms of rhinitis and w

\n\nMethods: Consecutive patients with symptoms of rhinitis and with positive skin test to pollens only were

interviewed for the duration of symptoms, correlation with sensitization pattern, and presence of reactivity to nonspecific stimuli. All underwent rhinoscopy and nasal scraping for cytology.\n\nResults: Five hundred nineteen patients with AR were studied. Of these 519 patients selleck 60 (11.5%) had an atypical or mixed form of rhinitis, with symptoms independent of the exposure and also elicited by nonspecific stimuli. These patients clearly differed from typical forms, especially for the nasal inflammation. They had a greater number of eosinophils and mast cells out Of season (p < 0.05). Moreover, these atypical forms had, more frequently, asthma and eosinophilic polyps.\n\nConclusion: In similar to 12% of patients with AR, other mechanisms of inflammation seem to intervene. Nasal cytology can be helpful in discriminating these atypical forms. (Am J Rhinol Allergy 23, 312-315, 2009; doi: 10.2500/ajra.2009.23.3320)”
“The aim of

this work was to study seasonal variation of histopathological and histochemical markers in blue mussels NVP-HSP990 ic50 (Mytilus edulis L) exposed to pyrogenic PAH contaminants. Mussels were collected in January, June, September and October from a sampling site in the vicinity of the discharge from an aluminium smelter and from a clean reference site. Histopathological analysis was carried out on the digestive gland (DG) and the gonads, lipofuscin and neutral lipids were analysed in the DG. Clear responses in lipofuscin and neutral lipids were detected in the DG of mussels collected from the polluted site at some sampling Selleck Vorinostat times. Moreover, these mussels presented atrophy in digestive tubules and haemocytic aggregates in the gonad and DG. However, in all parameters studied, the magnitude of the response showed clear seasonal variation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The relationship between turbidity and phosphorus (P) removal in the water

of the Qingcaosha reservoir was studied in the field. The reservoir is located on the Yangtze River estuary in China. The characteristics of P fractions and P sorption-release in Qingcaosha reservoir sediment were investigated in the laboratory. The field results showed that the settlement of suspended matter due to turbidity could lead to the deposition of the P in water onto the sediment surface. The laboratory results indicated that the total phosphorus (TP) content in the sediment varied from 550.33 to 844.48 mg/kg. In addition, the calcium (Ca) bound P (HCl-P) fraction had the highest proportion of TP, followed by organic phosphorus (OP) and phosphorus bound to aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) oxides and oxyhydroxides (NaOH-P) in reservoir sediment. The sorption capacity of sediment ranged from 9.78 to 39.84 mg/kg.

OAC use, whether as well controlled vitamin K antagonists or nonv

OAC use, whether as well controlled vitamin K antagonists or nonvitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulant, will reduce the burden of stroke in atrial fibrillation.”
“Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is an adaptor protein that associates with the receptor of erythropoietin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and thrombopoietin; however, its role is not known in myelodysplasia. We, herein,

report a significantly lower IRS2 expression in MDS cells, compared to normal cells. IRS2 expression was reduced in high-risk, compared to low-risk disease, and positively correlated with neutrophil and platelet counts. IRS2 was upregulated during erythroid differentiation of CD34(+) cells from normal donors and low-risk MDS patients and also during erythroid, granulocytic and megakaryocytic differentiation in cell lines. These results suggest Proteases inhibitor that defective IRS2 expression plays a role in the impaired hematopoietic cell differentiation in MDS. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

3-MA inhibitor All rights reserved.”
“Clinical trials in brain metastases present challenges and opportunities unique to this patient population. With the increase in awareness and screening for brain metastases, smaller and often asymptomatic lesions are detected, creating the opportunity for trials of pre-irradiation chemotherapy. The goal of earlier intervention is advanced by studies to prevent brain metastases in high-risk populations. Sequencing of systemic chemotherapy with experimental chemotherapy in the context of a clinical trial requires collaboration between the investigators and the treating medical oncologists beginning ideally during design of the study. Adaptive randomization improves the efficiency of randomized trials in the brain metastasis population. Finally, collaborative efforts between patients and physicians with the support from patient advocacy groups will help advance the quality and the clinical trial options for patients with brain metastases.”
“OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical, sonographic, and hormonal variables that influence the success

of labor induction in nulliparous postterm pregnancies.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN: Fifty nulliparous women with a single postterm pregnancy receiving a slow-release prostaglandin estradiol pessary were prospectively selleck chemicals enrolled, and clinical characteristics were analyzed in relation to success of induction of labor. Clinical, sonographic, and hormonal variables were analyzed by univariate statistical analysis and multivariate logistic regression for the prediction of successful induction.\n\nRESULTS: The group of patients delivering within 24 hours differed significantly from the remaining patients by higher Bishop scores, body mass indices, estradiol serum concentrations, estriol to estradiol ratios, and shorter cervices. The combination of cervical length and estriol to estradiol ratio achieved a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 71.3-100%) and a specificity of 94.1% (95% confidence interval, 80.

This study aims to demonstrate the impact of main-branch ISR (MB-

This study aims to demonstrate the impact of main-branch ISR (MB-ISR) on mortality and to clarify the optimal strategy. Methods: Between 2002 and 2008, 482 consecutive UDLM patients treated with drug eluting stent (sirolimus Rabusertib order and paclitaxel) were evaluated. Results: During follow-up period (median 52.6 months), MB-ISR occurred in 29, SB-ISR in 65, and MB/SB-ISR in 24. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of MB-ISR

were calcification (HR 2.284, p = 0.016), true-bifurcation (HR 2.331, p = 0.024), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (insulin-DM) (HR 2.259, p = 0.048). Furthermore, final proximal postdilatation (FPPD) (HR 0.548, p = 0.077), full LM cover approach (FCA) (HR 0.605, p = 0.093) and greater MLD (HR 0.611, p = 0.062) had a tendency signaling pathway to reduce MB-ISR. Furthermore, the occurrence of MB-ISR within 1-year was associated with cardiac-death (HR 2.734, p = 0.017). Conclusions: The patients

with MB-ISR had more comorbidities and complex lesions, resulting in higher risk of cardiac mortality as compared to the patients without MB-ISR. Presence of calcification, true-bifurcation and insulin-DM were associated with MB-ISR following UDLM intervention, while FCA, FPPD, and greater MLD seemed to be associated with the low occurrence of MB-ISR. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We propose a 2D mechanical model of a tubular epithelium resembling the early Drosophila embryo. The model consists of a single layer of identical cells with energy associated with the tension of cell cortex. Pexidartinib nmr Depending on the relative tersion of the apical, basal, and lateral sides of the cells, tissue thickness, and the degree of external constraint, the minimal-energy states of the epithelial cross section include circular shapes as well as a range of inward-buckled shapes. Some of the solutions are characterized by a single deep groove, which shows that an epithelium consisting of cells of identical mechanical properties can infold. This is consistent

with what is seen in embryos of certain Drosophila mutants. To ensure that the infolding occurs at a predetermined section of the epithelium, we extend the model by increasing the cross-sectional area of a subset of cells, which is consistent with observations in wild-type embryos. This variation of cell parameters across the epithelium is sufficient to make it fold at a specific site. The model explores previously untested minimal conditions for tissue invagination and is devoid of specificity needed to accurately describe an in vivo situation in Drosophila.”
“Shortening hospital stays has become a key focus in psychiatric care in recent years. However, patients with schizophrenia account for about 60% of inpatients in psychiatry departments in Japan. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and key indicators for long-term hospital stays among schizophrenia inpatients.

The highest antioxidant activities were related to high phenolic

The highest antioxidant activities were related to high phenolic contents. Three behaviors were revealed; the best antioxidant capacities in Soliman at floral bud stage, followed by Takelsa and the lowest potentialities (Bouarada and Jdeida). These findings indicate that antioxidant properties of M. pulegium were respectively influenced by environment, development stage and

their interaction.”
“Aldosterone-producing adenoma is a major subtype of primary aldosteronism. The number of cases of these adenomas, which are below the detection limit of computed tomography but diagnosed by adrenal venous sampling, has recently been increasing. However, the pathophysiology of these adenomas, especially those manifesting clinically overt

hyperaldosteronism despite their small size, remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the correlation between tumor size and the status of intratumoral A-1155463 in vivo steroidogenic enzymes involved in aldosterone biosynthesis using immunohistochemistry. Forty patients with surgically proven aldosterone-producing adenomas were retrospectively studied. Multidetector computed tomography, adrenal venous sampling, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy were performed in all of the patients studied. The tumor area at the maximum diameter of the sections was precisely measured by ImageJ software. The status of the steroidogenic enzymes was immunohistochemically analyzed, and the findings were evaluated according to the H-score system, based on both the number of immunopositive cells and relative immunointensity. Adrenal masses were not detected by computed tomography in 20 patients. Blood pressure, plasma aldosterone

concentration, urinary aldosterone excretion, and the number of antihypertensive agents also decreased significantly after the surgery in these patients, as well as in the patients with adenomas detectable by computed tomography. Maximum tumor area obtained check details in the specimens was significantly correlated with preoperative plasma aldosterone concentration, urinary aldosterone excretion, and the H score of 11 beta-hydroxylase and was inversely correlated with the H score of aldosterone synthase. These results demonstrated that small adenomas could produce sufficient aldosterone to cause clinically overt primary aldosteronism because of the significantly higher aldosterone synthase expression per tumor area.”
“During solution formulation study of tetrabenazine (TBZ), a dopamine depleting agent, used in chorea associated with Huntington’s disease and symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder it was observed a strong discoloration upon storage. We investigated this physico-chemical behavior by implementing forced degradation studies. It was observed yellowing only under Suntest light exposure of TBZ solution.

Alternatively, iterative methods

can be used, but they ca

Alternatively, iterative methods

can be used, but they can be extremely slow at converging when dealing with large matrices. A few approaches suitable for the reconstruction of images from very large data sets have been developed. However, they either require explicit construction of the sensitivity matrix, suffer from slow computation this website times, or can only be applied to restricted geometries. We introduce a method for fast reconstruction in fDOT with large data and solution spaces, which preserves the resolution of the forward operator whilst compressing its representation. The method does not require construction of the full matrix, and thus allows storage and direct inversion of the explicitly constructed compressed system matrix. The method is tested using simulated and experimental data. Results show that the fDOT image reconstruction problem can be effectively compressed without significant loss of information and with the added advantage of reducing image noise. (C) 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)”
“Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) is a new metabolic regulator, which is related to antiobesity and insulin sensitivity in vivo. However, the clinical implication of FGF-21 is poorly understood. To investigate whether FGF-21 may play a role as a metabolic

regulator in patients with end-stage renal disease, we measured serum concentrations MEK activation of FGF-21, Rigosertib inflammatory markers, and metabolic parameters in healthy people (n = 63) and nondiabetic patients receiving peritoneal

dialysis (PD, n = 72). The patients were treated with angiotensin receptor blocker for 6 months, and the changes in FGF-21 concentration and metabolic parameters were assessed. Compared with controls, serum FGF-21 concentration was 8 times higher in patients undergoing PD (754.2 +/- 463.5 vs 86.9 +/- 60.2 pg/mL, P < .001). In controls, only lipid parameters correlated positively with FGF-21 concentration. In contrast, inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) correlated positively and residual renal function correlated inversely with serum FGF-21 concentration in PD patients. In a multivariate analysis adjusting these factors, residual renal function, HOMA-IR, and fibrinogen concentration were independent determinants of serum FGF-21 concentration. After 6-month angiotensin receptor blocker treatment, serum FGF-21 concentration declined significantly by 13% and HOMA-IR and inflammatory markers improved in PD patients. These findings suggest that FGF-21 may play a role in insulin resistance in patients with end-stage renal disease. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizure


Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a familial epilepsy syndrome with extremely variable expressivity. Mutations in 5 genes that raise susceptibility to GEFS+ have been discovered, but they account for only a small proportion of families.\n\nMethods: We identified a 4-generation family containing 15 affected individuals with a range of phenotypes in the GEFS+ spectrum, including febrile seizures, febrile seizures plus, epilepsy, and severe epilepsy with developmental delay. We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis using microsatellite markers and then saturated the potential linkage region identified by this screen with more markers. We evaluated the evidence for linkage using both model-based and model-ree (posterior probability of linkage [PPL]) analyses. We sequenced 16 candidate genes and screened for copy number abnormalities in the minimal genetic region.\n\nResults: All 15 affected subjects and 1 obligate carrier shared a haplotype of markers at chromosome 6q16.3-22.31,

an 18.1-megabase region flanked by markers D6S962 and D6S287. The maximum multipoint lod score in this region was 4.68. PPL analysis indicated an 89% probability of linkage. Sequencing of 16 candidate genes did not reveal a causative mutation. No deletions or duplications were identified.\n\nConclusions: We report a novel susceptibility locus for genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus at 6q16.3-22.31, in which there are no known genes associated with ion channels or neurotransmitter receptors. The identification of the responsible high throughput screening assay gene in this region is likely to lead to the discovery of novel mechanisms of febrile seizures and epilepsy. Neurology (R) 2009;73:1264-1272″
“We investigated sorption characteristics of two commonly used herbicides, atrazine and imazethapyr, in 101 soils with allophanic and non-allophanic clays of New Zealand using the batch equilibration technique. Soil properties, such as organic carbon (OC) content, texture,

buy BTSA1 pH, amount and type of clay, and cation-exchange capacity (CEC), were tested against the sorption coefficients (K(d)) of these herbicides. There was a wide variation in the sorption affinities of the soils, as the K(d) values of atrazine and imazethapyr ranged from 0.7 to 52.1 and from 0.1 to 11.3 L kg(-1), respectively. For atrazine, the sorption affinities for the allophanic set of soils (mean K(d) of 8.5 L kg(-1)) were greater than for the non-allophanic set of soils (mean K(d) of 7.5 L kg(-1)). However, no effect of allophanic status was found for imazethapyr sorption (mean K(d) of 0.82 and 0.76 L kg(-1) for allophanic and non-allophanic, respectively). None of the measured soil properties could alone explain adequately the sorption behavior of the herbicides. The variation of OC soil sorption coefficients, K(oc), was also larger for atrazine (mean K(oc) of 126.9 L kg(-1)) than for imazethapyr (mean K(oc) of 13.2 L kg(-1)).

This is strongly reminiscent of the situation in Schwann cells wh

This is strongly reminiscent of the situation in Schwann cells where Sox10 first induces and then cooperates with Krox20 during myelination. Our analyses indicate that the regulatory network for myelination in oligodendrocytes is BTSA1 mouse organized along similar general principles as the one in Schwann cells, but is differentially implemented.”
“Background: Although the systemic administration of deferoxamine (DFO) is protective in experimental models of normal ischemic flap and diabetic wound,

its effect on diabetic flap ischemia using a local injection remains unknown. Objective: To explore the feasibility of local injection of DFO to improve the survival of ischemic random skin flaps in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Ischemic random skin flaps were made in 125 mice. Animals were divided into the DFO-treated (n = 20), PBS-treated (n = 16) and untreated (n = 16) groups. Surviving area, vessel density, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)

SYN-117 mouse were evaluated on the seventh day after local injection. Results: The viability of DFO-treated flap was significantly enhanced, with increased regional blood perfusion and capillary density compared with those in the two control groups. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)analysis demonstrated a marked increase in systemic Flk-1(+)/CD11b(-) endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in DFO-treated mice. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 alpha

was increased not only in diabetic flap tissue, but also in dermal fibroblasts cultured under hyperglycemic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions: Local injection of DFO could exert preventive effects against skin flap necrosis in STZ-induced diabetic mice by elevating WZB117 in vivo the expression of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF, increased EPC mobilization, which all contributed to promote ischemic diabetic flap survival.”
“With the continuous use of N fertilizers for crop production, the emission of N2O is consistently increasing in the atmosphere. A field study was conducted to assess the effects of corn crop residue mulch and different N fertilizer levels i.e., 0, 80, 160, 240 and 320 kg N ha(-1) respectively on the emissions of N2O and wheat crop productivity under the rain-fed condition of Loess Plateau China. Factorial experiment with three replications was used for this study. Maximum grain yield was recorded for 160, 240 and 320 kg N ha(-1), fertilizer level. Maximum emission of N2O was recorded during the first three weeks of planting wheat crop. Except for N fertilizer level of 240 kg N ha(-1), applications of mulch reduced the emission of N2O for 0, 80, 160 and 320 kg N ha(-1), N fertilizer levels. On cumulative basis, minimum emission of N2O was recorded in case of 80 kg N ha(-1) N fertilizer level.

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy showed diffuse and foc

Bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy showed diffuse and focal infiltration with B-CLL lymphocytes. Percutaneous renal biopsy revealed total sclerosis in 3/21(14%) of the glomeruli and focal and segmental solidification and sclerosis in 4/21 (19%) glomeruli. A regimen of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab was successful in inducing remission of the CLL and clinical resolution of the nephritic-range proteinuria.\n\nConclusions: A multidisciplinary

Selleck BMS 345541 approach to monitor both the malignancy and the glomerular lesions is crucial for the optimal management of paraneoplastic glomerulonephritis. Although chemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab successfully treated CLL-associated nephrotic syndrome in our patient, further studies are required to confirm efficacy in this setting.”
“Background: Fish consumption has been shown to be inversely associated with CHID, which may be due to n-3 fatty acids. The n-3 fatty check details acids, EPA and DHA, are naturally found only in marine sources. Dietary intakes of methylmercury from certain fish have been hypothesized to increase the risk of CHD.\n\nObjective: To investigate the relationship between 30d fish frequency consumption (assessed by FFQ), total blood Hg concentrations and risk markers

of CHD in women aged 16-49 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.\n\nDesign: Multiple linear regression analyses were used to test 0) the relationships between 30d fish frequency consumption and five CHD risk markers, i.e. HDL. cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein

(CRP); and (ii) if total blood Hg attenuated any associations between fish consumption and CHD risk markers in non-pregnant, non-diabetic females aged 16-49 years.\n\nResults: Total 30d fish frequency consumption was negatively associated with CRP (b= -0.10, 95% CI -0.19, -0.02, P=0.015) and positively associated with HDL-C (b= 1.40, 95% CI 0.31, 2.50, P = 0.014). Adjustment for other risk factors did not significantly attenuate the associations. Despite the collinearity between fish and Hg, there is a protective association between C59 wnt fish intake and CHD risk factors.\n\nConclusions: The levels of DHA + EPA and other nutrients in fish may be adequate to offset the hypothesized risks of heart disease related to ingesting Hg from fish.”
“Mating aggregations in the mosquito parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus, were investigated in the laboratory. Female postparasites, through their attraction of males and, remarkably, other females, drive the formation of mating clusters. Clusters may grow in size by merging with other individual or clusters. Female molting to the adult stage and reproductive success are enhanced in larger clusters. Male mating behavior is initiated when the female begins to molt to the adult stage by shedding dual juvenile cuticles posteriorly.

“The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a small gr

“The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a small group of proteins that are reversibly attached to protein substrates to modify their functions. The large scale identification of protein SUMOylation and their modification sites in mammalian cells represents a significant challenge because of the relatively small number of in vivo substrates and the dynamic nature of this modification. We report here a novel proteomics approach to selectively enrich and identify

SUMO conjugates from human cells. We stably expressed different SUMO paralogs in HEK293 cells, each containing a His 6 tag and a strategically located tryptic cleavage site at the C terminus to facilitate the recovery and identification of SUMOylated peptides by affinity enrichment and mass spectrometry. Tryptic peptides with short SUMO remnants offer significant advantages in large scale SUMOylome experiments including the generation of paralog-specific

PF-562271 in vivo fragment ions following CID and ETD activation, and the identification of modified peptides using conventional database search engines such as Mascot. We identified 205 unique protein substrates together with 17 precise SUMOylation sites present in 12 SUMO protein conjugates including three new sites (Lys-380, Lys-400, and Lys-497) on the protein promyelocytic leukemia. Label-free quantitative proteomics analyses on purified nuclear extracts from untreated and arsenic trioxide-treated cells revealed that all identified SUMOylated sites of promyelocytic leukemia were differentially SUMOylated upon stimulation. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 10: 10.1074/mcp.M110.004796, 1-15, Selleck Cilengitide 2011.”
“Many recombinant eukaryotic proteins tend to form insoluble aggregates called inclusion bodies, especially when expressed in Escherichia coli. We report the first application of the technique of three-phase partitioning (TPP) to obtain correctly refolded active proteins from solubilized inclusion bodies. TPP was used for refolding

12 different proteins overexpressed in E. coli. In each case, the protein refolded by TPP gave either higher refolding Dibutyryl-cAMP mouse yield than the earlier reported method or succeeded where earlier efforts have failed. TPP-refolded proteins were characterized and compared to conventionally purified proteins in terms of their spectral characteristics and/or biological activity. The methodology is scaleable and parallelizable and does not require subsequent concentration steps. This approach may serve as a useful complement to existing refolding strategies of diverse proteins from inclusion bodies.”
“The prognosis of esophageal cancer (EC) remains poor, lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors for determining the prognosis of patients with EC. Extensive lymph node dissection has long been considered as the favorable procedure to achieve an accurate pathologic staging and a better prognosis.

Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements that co

Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements that code for a stable protein toxin and a labile antitoxin that are thought to be involved in metabolic

regulation of bacteria by enabling a switch to a dormant state under stress conditions. The contribution to infection persistence Elacridar clinical trial of the NTHi TA loci vapBC-1 and vapXD was examined in this study.\n\nResults: Deletions in vapBC-1, vapXD and vapBC-1 vapXD significantly decreased the survival of NTHi co-cultured with primary human respiratory tissue at the air-liquid interface and in the chinchilla model of otitis media. The TA deletions did not affect the growth dynamics of the mutants in rich media, their ultra-structural morphology, or display appreciable synergy during NTHi infections. The toxin and antitoxin proteins of both pairs heterodimerized in vivo. Consistent with our previous findings regarding the VapC-1 toxin, the NTHi

VapD toxin also displayed ribonuclease FK506 research buy activity.\n\nConclusions: We conclude that the vapBC-1 and vapXD TA loci enhance NTHi survival and virulence during infection in vitro and in vivo using a mechanism of mRNA cleavage, and that these conserved TA pairs represent new targets for the prophylaxis and therapy of otitis media and other NTHi-caused mucosal diseases.”
“Graft copolymerization of chitosan with acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out by free radical polymerization using KMnO(4) and oxalic acid as a combined redox initiator system. Graft copolymerization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance GSK1838705A in vivo spectra ((1)H-NMR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). In addition, further modification of the cyano groups of the grafted copolymers was performed by partial hydrolysis into carboxylic function

groups with various extents. The extent of hydrolysis was monitored using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of the hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed grafted copolymers as polymeric carriers for drug delivery systems was extensively studied by preparation of tablets incorporated with methyl orange (MO) as a drug model. In vitro drug release was carried out in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The effects of grafting percentage (GP) and the extent of hydrolysis on the release kinetics were evaluated. Release continued up to 24 h for both hydrolyzed and unhydrolysed chitosan-g-PAN copolymers. The nature of drug transport through the polymer matrices was studied by comparing with power law or Kormeyer-Peppas equation. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1837-1845, 2010″
“Behcet’s disease (BD) is a form of systemic vasculitis with the classic triad of recurrent oral and genital ulcers along with uveitis. In BD, muscular involvement is very rare.