In line with these observations IRAK4-deficient monocytes failed to induce allogeneic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses, an effect reverted by neutralization of IL-10. Taken together, our data highlight an unexpected role of IRAK4, Akt, and mTOR in the regulation of tolerance in human monocytes. Monocytes are among the first to encounter bacterial pathogens in infections of the bloodstream. They account for 10% of the human peripheral blood leukocytes, making monocytes one of the most abundant antigen-presenting cell subsets in the circulation and a very potent source for cytokines
[1, 2]. Their ability to produce high levels of cytokines and thereby shape the systemic immune response is thought to be important in determining the outcome of sepsis and balancing pro-inflammatory versus compensatory anti-inflammatory responses . Human blood monocytes are a heterogeneous this website cell population and functionally defined subsets can be distinguished
based on their cytokine and receptor expression profiles. Classical monocytes express high levels of CD14, but no CD16 (FcγRIII) and account for ∼90% of blood monocytes. The nonclassical subset is characterized by the expression of CD16 and low CD14 levels. While the classical CD14+ subset is characterized by the preferential production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 rather than pro-inflammatory cytokines after TLR stimulation, the nonclassical subset produces Fostamatinib high amounts of TNF and low levels of IL-10 in response to TLR ligands, and is, therefore, referred to as pro-inflammatory [4-6]. As immune effector cells monocytes are equipped with chemokine-, adhesion-, and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Earlier studies have highlighted the fundamental role of TLRs in the recognition and clearance of invasive bacteria [2, 7]. TLR2 and TLR4, surface receptors sensing bacterial cell wall components have been shown to be essential for the protection against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae [8, 9]. In response to TLR activation monocytes produce typical pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β
Racecadotril and in a delayed fashion compensatory anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 [10, 11]. TLR engagement and dimerization of their Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains initiates the intracellular signaling cascade by providing a docking platform for the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), which features an N-terminal death domain (DD) and a C-terminal TIR domain. This key adaptor molecule is being used by all TLR except TLR3. Receptor recruitment of MyD88 via its TIR domain promotes MyD88 DD oligomerization to form a DD complex termed the Myddosome . Subsequently, the DD of IL-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAK1, IRAK2, IRAKM, and IRAK4) are incorporated bringing the IRAK kinase domains into close proximity.