This model was applied to assess HiAP growth processes within 16 municipalities in the Netherlands. We used municipal policies on health inequalities as a case. Empirical data was gathered based on document analysis, a questionnaire and interviews.
Results: Using this model we were able to classify HiAP growth processes by several characteristics, such as the recognition of the importance of HiAP (Stage I; four municipalities), HiAP described in policy documents and collaboration with sectors present (Stage
II; seven municipalities), concrete collaboration agreements and structural consultations forms (Stage III; four municipalities), www.selleckchem.com/products/acy-738.html and a broad, shared vision on HiAP (Stage IV; two municipalities). Examples of necessary conditions
were sufficient support and resources.
Conclusions: This study shows that it is possible to apply a maturity model to classify stages of HiAP in municipalities. Use of the MM-HiAP as a formal measuring instrument depends on further operationalization and validation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
A retrospective study, based on 60 990 farrowing records from 35 commercial herds, 3-MA concentration was performed to determine the incidence of early parturition (< 114d) and to investigate the relationship between early parturition and total number of piglets born, number of piglets born alive and percentage of stillborn piglets per litter. The mean gestation length was 115.4 +/- 1.62d, and early parturition occurred in 10% of all farrowing records. Sows with early parturition had significantly more stillborn piglets and a larger litter size compared to sows with a normal gestation length (114-117d). Sows with a gestation length < 114d were 1.2 times (95% CI: 1.19-1.21; p < 0.001) more likely to have an
early parturition at the subsequent parity. A second study was performed in four herds (n = 329) to investigate the efficacy of altrenogest administration on 110-112d (T112) or 111-113d (T113) of gestation for preventing early parturition and to investigate the effect of this treatment on the reproductive performance of sows. The interval between the last altrenogest treatment and the onset of parturition was 3.3 +/- 1.32 (T112) BMS-754807 mw or 2.0 +/- 0.89 (T113) days. The gestation length of sows of the altrenogest group (T112 + T113) (115.3 +/- 1.23d) was significantly longer compared to gestation length of the non-treated sows (114.7 +/- 1.69d) (p < 0.01). Altrenogest treatment had no negative effect on the reproductive performances of the sows. In conclusion, the administration of altrenogest in late gestation is an effective and safe method to prevent early parturition and can counteract the reproductive losses because of premature farrowing, which may occur in a substantial part of the farrowing events.