\n\nMethods: In this 48-week prospective, observational study that was conducted at designated hospitals for HIV care in Taiwan, HIV-infected patients aged 18 years or older who had developed hyperlipidemia after receiving CART that did not contain atazanavir were enrolled. Antiretroviral regimens AZD4547 mw were switched to regimens containing two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors plus atazanavir 400 mg once daily or atazanavir 300 mg boosted with ritonavir 100 mg once daily. The lipid profiles, including total triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and plasma HIV RNA load were determined every 3 months.\n\nResults:
Sixty-six patients with hyperlipidemia were enrolled. At the end of the study, triglyceride
levels declined by 49.0% (p = 0.0002) and total cholesterol levels by 18.1% from baseline (p < 0.0001), whereas there were no significant changes observed for low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Mean CD4 lymphocyte count increased from 465 cells/mu L at baseline to 498 cells/mu L at the end of the study, whereas the proportion of patients with undetectable plasma HIV RNA load increased from 73.1% to 81.7%. The regimens were well tolerated.\n\nConclusions: Switch to atazanavir-containing regimens that were well tolerated resulted in significant improvement of hyperlipidemia and maintenance of Z-DEVD-FMK nmr clinical, immunologic, and virologic responses to CART. Copyright Emricasan solubility dmso (C) 2011, Taiwan
Society of Microbiology. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Gas gangrene is a necrotic infection of soft tissue associated with high mortality, often necessitating amputation in order to control the infection. Herein we present a case of gas gangrene of the arm in an intravenous drug user with a history of intramuscular injections with normal saline in the shoulder used to provoke pain for recovery after drug induced coma. The patient was early treated with surgery and antibiotics rendering possible the preservation of the limb and some of its function. Additionally, a review of the literature regarding case reports of limb salvage after gas gangrene is presented.”
“Avian parents and social insect colonies are victimized by interspecific brood parasites cheats that procure costly care for their dependent offspring by leaving them in another species’ nursery. Birds and insects defend themselves from attack by brood parasites; their defences in turn select counter-strategies in the parasite, thus setting in motion antagonistic co-evolution between the two parties. Despite their considerable taxonomic disparity, here we show striking parallels in the way that co-evolution between brood parasites and their hosts proceeds in insects and birds.