5 and 46 mG, respectively, were recorded These levels also dimin

5 and 46 mG, respectively, were recorded. These levels also diminished rapidly with distance. None of these sources appeared to influence magnetic field levels at nearby homes located as close as just over 500 m from turbines, where measurements immediately outside of the homes were smaller than = 0.4 mG. Conclusions: The results suggest that there is nothing unique to wind farms with respect to EMF exposure; in fact, magnetic field levels in the vicinity of wind turbines were lower than those produced by many common household electrical devices and were well below

any existing regulatory guidelines with respect to human health.”
“Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct is a precursor lesion of cholangiocarcinoma. We present SR-2156 a video of a totally laparoscopic right hepatectomy with hilar dissection and lymphadenectomy, en-bloc resection of the extrahepatic bile duct, and Roux-en-Y

hepaticojejunostomy in a patient with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the right hepatic duct. A 58-year-old Napabucasin woman with right upper quadrant pain was referred for evaluation. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed dilatation of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stop in the right bile duct, with dilatation of the distal bile duct. The decision was to perform a totally laparoscopic right hepatectomy with hilar lymphadenectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The operative time was 400 min. Estimated blood loss was 400 ml, without the need for transfusions. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day. The abdominal drain was removed on the 14th postoperative drain with no signs of biliary leakage. Final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of intraductal papillary neoplasm without malignant transformation. Surgical margins were free. Patient is well with no evidence of the disease

14 months after the procedure. Laparoscopic right hepatectomy with hepaticojejunostomy is feasible and safe, provided it is performed in a specialized center and with staff CH5424802 chemical structure with experience in hepatobiliary surgery and advanced laparoscopic surgery. Currently this operation is reserved for selected cases. This video can help oncologic surgeons to perform this complex procedure.”
“Significance Psoriasis, a common immune-mediated disease, affects approximately 2 % of the population worldwide. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) might be a manifestation of systemic vascular involvement in autoimmune disease. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no systematic English-language examination of the risk of SSNHL in patients with psoriasis. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that psoriasis is a risk factor for developing SSNHL.

Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between AC

Therefore, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs and LB-100 order early childhood risk factors for adult cardiovascular disease.\n\nMethods: 1 234 grade six to eight students

participated in school-based data collection, which included resting measures of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Parents of these children completed an inventory of ACEs taken from the Childhood Trust Events Survey. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between experiencing more than 4 ACEs experienced, systolic BP, HR, BMI and WC. In additional analysis, ACEs were assessed ordinally in their relationship with systolic BP, HR, and BMI as well as clinical obesity and hypertension status.\n\nResults: After adjustment for family education, income, age, sex, physical activity, and parental history of hypertension, and WC for HR models, four or more ACEs had a significant

effect on HR (b = 1.8 bpm, 95% CI (0.1-3.6)) BMI (b = 1.1 kg/m(2), 95% CI (0.5-1.8)), and WC (b = 3.6 cm, 95% CI (1.8-5.3)). A dose-response relationship between ACE accumulation and both BMI and WC was also found to be significant. Furthermore, accumulation of 4 or more ACEs was significantly associated with clinical obesity (95th PARP inhibitor trial percentile), after controlling for the aforementioned covariates.\n\nConclusions: In a community sample of grade six to eight children, accumulation of 4 or more ACEs significantly increased BMI, WC and resting HR. Therefore, risk factors related to reported associations between ACEs and cardiovascular outcomes among adults are identifiable in childhood suggesting earlier interventions to reduce CVD risk are required.”
“Episodic memory, which depends critically on the integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), has been described as mental time travel in which the

rememberer jumps back in time. The neural mechanism underlying this ability remains elusive. Mathematical and computational models of performance in episodic memory tasks provide a specific hypothesis regarding the computation that supports such a jump back in time. The models suggest that a representation of temporal context, a representation MK-2206 inhibitor that changes gradually over macroscopic periods of time, is the cue for episodic recall. According to these models, a jump back in time corresponds to a stimulus recovering a prior state of temporal context. In vivo single-neuron recordings were taken from the human MTL while epilepsy patients distinguished novel from repeated images in a continuous recognition memory task. The firing pattern of the ensemble of MTL neurons showed robust temporal autocorrelation over macroscopic periods of time during performance of the memory task. The gradually-changing part of the ensemble state was causally affected by the visual stimulus being presented.

“Objective: Dose-dependent side effects related


“Objective: Dose-dependent side effects related

to myo-inositol (MI) oral administration represent a significant shortcoming for its clinical use. Aiming to search for a pharmaceutical form able to be better absorbed, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the new manufactured MI soft gelatin capsule form was evaluated and compared with the commercially available MI powder.\n\nResearch design and methods: A single-dose relative trial, consisting of four phases, was performed CA4P ic50 on 20 healthy volunteers who received different doses of MI powder and MI soft gelatin capsules. PK profiles related to the two pharmaceutical forms were obtained by analysis of MI plasma concentration, and the respective MI bioavailability

was compared.\n\nResults: The administration of MI powder and MI soft gelatin capsules resulted in a different bioavailability. MI soft gelatin capsule form showed similar PK parameters compared with three times higher doses of MI in powder form.\n\nConclusions: MI soft gelatin capsules displayed an improved bioavailability, allowing to substantially reduce the administered dose and to minimize the dose-dependent side effects. Considering the number of conditions in which MI supplementation is recommended, this evidence could support a broader use of MI in clinical practice.”
“Microtubules (MTs) are essential for many processes in plant cells. MT-associated proteins (MAPS) influence MT polymerization dynamics and enable them to perform their VX-770 price functions. The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has been shown to associate with MTs in animal and plant cells. However, the role of Hsp90-MT binding in plants has not yet been investigated. Here, we show that Hsp90 associates with cortical MTs in tobacco cells and decorates MTs in the phragmoplast. Further, we show that tobacco H5p90_MT binds directly to polymerized MTs in vitro. The inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin (GDA) severely impairs MT re-assembly after cold-induced de-polymerization. Our results indicate that the PP2 concentration plant Hsp90

interaction with MTs plays a key role in cellular events, where MT re-organization is needed. (c) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Vitamin A deficiency causes a marked reduction in the number of T and B cells in the small intestinal tissues. The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid imprints lymphocytes with gut-homing specificity upon antigenic stimulation. In the small intestinal lamina propria, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes, there are dendritic cells capable of producing retinoic acid. Their capacity depends on the expression of retinal dehydrogenases (RALDH). RALDH2, encoded by Aldh 1a2, is a major isoform of RALDH in the intestinal dendritic cells under specific pathogen-free conditions, and can be induced by multiple factors constitutively present or induced in the small intestinal microenvironment.

This basin was situated along the active margin of a Paleozoic fo

This basin was situated along the active margin of a Paleozoic foreland basin in western Belinostat Gondwana. Continuous sedimentation occurred in different paleoenvironments from east to west: marginal marine settings with estuarine and deltaic deposits (Sierras Subandinas), shallow marine shelf environments with large clastic deposits in the central part (Cordillera Oriental-eastern Puna), and deep marine deposits with volcaniclastic supplies (western Puna). Limited biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic data from these sequences are known from graptolites, conodonts and trilobites, and more recently also from palynomorphs. An analysis of Ordovician

sections from the different sedimentological settings of northwestern Argentina produced 60 chitinozoan-bearing samples from which 19 genera and 45 species have been recorded. Four chitinozoan assemblages were observed in the Lower Ordovician from northwestern Argentina. Correlations with other fossil groups provide independent biostratigraphic SCH727965 ic50 control. A stratigraphic range chart of selected acritarch taxa throughout the Ordovician of the Central Andean Basin is developed and biostratigrapic or potential biostratigraphic markers for the basin

are proposed. In northwestern Argentina, Late Ordovician chitinozoan assemblages display affinities with Polar to Subpolar faunas. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. The aim of this study

was to evaluate the reinforcing effect of differently oriented fibers on the load-bearing capacity of three-unit fixed dental prostheses CA3 (FDPs). Materials and methods. Forty-eight composite FDPs were fabricated. Specimens were divided into eight groups (n = 6/group; codes 1-8). Groups 1 and 5 were plain restorative composites (Grandio and Z100) without fiber reinforcement, groups 2 and 6 were reinforced with a continuous unidirectional fiber substructure, groups 3 and 7 were reinforced with a continuous bidirectional fiber and groups 4 and 8 were reinforced with a continuous bidirectional fiber substructure and continuous unidirectional fiber. FDPs were polymerized incrementally with a handheld light curing unit for 40 s and statically loaded until final fracture. Results. Kruskal-Wallis analysis revealed that all groups had significantly different load-bearing capacities. Group 4 showed the highest mean load-bearing capacity and Group 7 the lowest. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that continuous unidirectional fiber increased the mechanical properties of composite FDPs and bidirectional reinforcement slowed crack propagation on abutments.”
“Fe3O4 is one of the important oxide materials and its surface structure should be well understood to enable application of this material. We report the first noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) results for Fe3O4(001) thin films.

Many clinical trials have verified the safety, tolerability, and

Many clinical trials have verified the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL or TRAIL agonists in patients. However, the resistance to TRAIL in multiple cancer cells resulted in limited treatment response and poor prognosis. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance

in cancer cells are summarized. How TRAIL receptors, structure of the cellular membrane, the Protein Kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappa B) pathways involve in regulating TRAIL resistance is described. A full understanding of the exact molecular mechanisms of TRAIL resistance in cancer cells could help to design more suitable strategies and new drugs to overcome TRAIL resistance and obtain better therapeutic Vadimezan datasheet outcomes.”
“Currently, a new trend in development of vaccines against influenza with broader spectrum of efficacy is focused

on conserved antigens of influenza virus. The HA2 glycopolypeptide (HA2 gp) is one of conserved antigens, potentially suitable as immunogens inducing cross-protection against influenza. We selected two distinct BEZ235 in vivo domains of HA2 gp originating from influenza A virus (IAV) of H3 subtype for induction of antiviral immune response: the ectodomain (EHA2) comprising aa 23-185 and the fusion peptide (FP) comprising N-terminal aa 1-38. BALB/c mice were immunized with three doses of EHA2 and FP, respectively, and subsequently challenged with 2 LD50 of IAV of homologous (H3) or heterologous (H7) HA subtype. Both peptides induced significant antibody response and protected mice against the lethal infection. The most efficient protection was achieved

with EHA2 against homologous virus.”
“Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the development and progression of many tumors. and its inhibition has been shown to block tumor growth. www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2835219.html This Study examined COX-2 expression in primary and metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Formalin-fixed paraffin-enihedded tissues from 26 primary MCCs and 7 lymph node metastases were stained immunohistochemically with I monoclonal antibody directed against COX-2, and the percentage and intensity of staining were analyzed semiquantitatively. Immunopostivity tor COX-2 was found in 20 primary tumors (77%), and was diffuse in 16 of them (80%). Staining intensity was strong in 5 tumors (19%), moderate in 6 (23%), and weak in 9 (35%). Five metastases (71%) showed similar staining. prominent mitotic activity was, associated with more diffuse COX-2 immunopositivity. No association was found between COX-2 expression and outcome. This study confirms that most MCCs express COX-2 and shows that COX-2 expression is related to one parameter of agressive behavior – a high mitotic rate-but not to any others. The possibility of treating MCC with COX-2 inhibitors should be considered.

As an example, we investigate how the Hawk and Dove strategies in

As an example, we investigate how the Hawk and Dove strategies in a Hawk-Dove game spread in a population represented by a random regular graph, a random graph and

a scale-free network, and we examine the features of the graph which affect the evolution of the population in this particular game. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a better understanding Ro-3306 research buy of women’s knowledge and beliefs around HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Therefore, this formative study sought to examine women’s attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccine acceptance, maternal-child communication about sexuality, and healthcare decision-making and gender roles within an urban community in South Africa.\n\nWomen ages 18-44 were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a Black township outside of Johannesburg during the fall of 2008. Twenty-four women participated in three focus groups. Findings indicated that

the women talked to their children about a variety of sexual health issues; had limited knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Women were interested in learning more about the vaccine although they had reservations about the long-term affect; they CP-868596 nmr reinforced that grandmothers played a key role in a mother’s decisions’ about

her child’s health, and supported the idea that government should provide the HPV vaccine as part of the country’s immunization program.\n\nOur findings indicate the need to develop primary prevention strategies and materials that will provide women with basic cervical cancer prevention messages, including information about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, screening, and how to talk to their children about these topics. Prevention strategies should also consider the cultural context and Androgen Receptor Antagonist in vivo the role that grandmothers play in the family unit. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Prion proteins (PrPs) cause prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The conversion of a normal cellular form (PrPC) of PrP into an abnormal form (PrPSc) is thought to be associated with the pathogenesis. An RNA aptamer that tightly binds to and stabilizes PrPC is expected to block this conversion and to thereby prevent prion diseases. Here, we show that an RNA aptamer comprising only 12 residues, r(GGAGGAGGAGGA) (R12), reduces the PrPSc level in mouse neuronal cells persistently infected with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent.

Methyl binding domains (MBDs) excised from larger mammalian methy

Methyl binding domains (MBDs) excised from larger mammalian methyl-CpG-binding proteins specifically recognize methyl-cytosine bases of CpG dinucleotides in duplex DNA. Previous molecular diagnostic studies involving MBDs have employed Escherichia coli for protein expression with either low soluble yields or the use of time-consuming denaturation-renaturation purification procedures to improve yields. Efficient MBD-based diagnostics require expression and purification methods that maximize protein yield and minimize time and resource expenditure. This study is a systematic optimization analysis of MBD expression using both

SDS-PAGE and microscopy and it provides a comparison of protein yield from published procedures selleckchem to that from the conditions found to be optimal in these experiments. Protein binding activity and specificity

were verified using a DNA electrophoretic mobility BTK inhibitor shift assay, and final protein yield was improved from the starting conditions by a factor of 65 with a simple, single-step purification. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative radiation dose from computed tomography (CT) scans and upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopic exams in the post-bariatric-surgery population and correlate these values with current concepts of potential radiation-induced cancer LY3023414 supplier risk.\n\nA retrospective study of 100 roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients and 100 gastric band patients was performed. The cumulative estimated radiation doses from CT scans and fluoroscopic studies received by these patients over a 2.5-year postoperative interval were calculated. The rate of positive radiological studies was determined. Nonlinear regression

analyses were used to identify potential independent predictors of higher radiation dose.\n\nMean cumulative dose was 20 +/- 20 mSv for RYGB patients and 11 +/- 11 mSv for gastric band patients. The RYGB procedure and a higher preoperative body mass index were each significant predictors of higher cumulative radiation doses. Dose in the RYGB group ranged from 4 to 156 mSv. Dose in the gastric banding group ranged from 4 to 46 mSv. In the RYGB cohort, positive findings were present in 35% and 16% of CT and fluoroscopic studies, respectively, and 24% and 22% in the gastric band group. None of the fluoroscopic exams performed after the routine 24-h postoperative studies were positive.\n\nAllowing for uncertainties of cancer risk at doses less than 50 mSv, patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery may receive radiation doses from postoperative diagnostic imaging tests that increase their lifetime cancer risk.”
“Background: Central neurocytoma is a rare primary brain turnout, mostly localised in the lateral ventricles in relation to the foramen of Monro.

40-15 28% of phenotypic variation (PV) Among the 134 QTL, 9 comm

40-15.28% of phenotypic variation (PV). Among the 134 QTL, 9 common QTL were detected in more than one environment, and 22 QTL and 19 new QTL were detected in combined analysis (E9). A total of 26 QTL hotspot regions were observed on 13 chromosomes and 2 larger

linkage check details groups, and some QTL clusters related to fiber qualities or yield components were also observed. The results obtained in the present study suggested that to map accurate QTL in crops with larger plant types, such as cotton, phenotyping under multiple environments is necessary to effectively apply the obtained results in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding and QTL cloning.”
“Since whey – acidic – protein domain (WAP) containing protease inhibitors such as SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor) and elafin (elastase BKM120 PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor – specific inhibitor) have antimicrobial activities and are thought to play critical roles in mucosal defenses, we are interested in these protease inhibitors. By accessing the Novartis mouse

expression database, we found that the four WAP family members, SLPI, WFDC2, WFDC5, and WFDC12, are highly expressed in the oral organs, such as the trachea, tongue, and salivary glands. Since their WAP domains play pivotal roles in the antimicrobial and/or antiprotease activities and their application in therapeutics are expected to have practical value, we collected 98 WAP homologues and tried to predict their physiological functions by analyzing their amino acid sequence structures. From the multiple alignments of amino acid sequences, we predicted that most of the mammalian N-terminal WAP domains derived from SLPIs and the WAP domains derived from WFDC12s have antimicrobial activities, whereas most of the mammalian C-terminal WAP domains derived from SLPIs and the WAP domains derived from elafins have https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Rapamycin.html antiprotease activities. From the phylogenetic tree, it was revealed that an ancestral WAP protein initially diverged into the WFDC5-C WAP domain and the ancestral protein for the other WAP domains. Subsequently,

the ancestral protein for the other WAP domains diverged into two ancestral proteins, one for elafin and SLPI-C WAP domains and the other, for SLPI-N, WFDC15b, WFDC12, and WFDC5-N WAP domains, respectively. Moreover, the tree indicated that the WFDC5-N and WFDC12 WAP domains share a common ancestral protein.”
“Root-to-shoot signalling via xylem sap is an important mechanism by which plants respond to stress. This signalling could be mediated by alteration in the concentrations of inorganic and/or organic molecules.\n\nThe effect of salt stress on the contents of xylem sap in Brassica olarecea has been analysed by mass spectrometry in order to quantify these changes. Subcellular location of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) by immunogold labelling and peroxidase isozymes was also analysed by isoelectrofocusing.

However, a much easier handling as the result of all new enhancem

However, a much easier handling as the result of all new enhancements improves film behavior, expanding in this way the potential

applications of radiochromic film dosimetry. (C) 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3512792]“
“Background: Hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation is associated with aberrant neutrophil Linsitinib activation and organ failure. This experimental porcine study was done to evaluate the effects of Fas-directed extracorporeal immune therapy with a leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) on hemodynamics, neutrophil tissue infiltration, and tissue damage after hemorrhagic shock/resuscitation.\n\nMethods: In a prospective controlled double-armed animal trial 24 Munich Mini Pigs (30.3 +/- 3.3 kg) were rapidly haemorrhaged to reach a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 +/- 5 mmHg, maintained hypotensive for 45 minutes, and then were resuscitated with Ringer’ solution to baseline MAP. With beginning of resuscitation 12 pigs underwent extracorporeal immune therapy for 3 hours (LIM group) and 12 pigs were resuscitated according to standard medical care (SMC). Haemodynamics,

haematologic, metabolic, and organ specific damage parameters were monitored. Neutrophil infiltration was analyzed histologically after 48 and 72 hours. Lipid peroxidation and apoptosis were specifically Dinaciclib concentration determined in lung, bowel, and liver.\n\nResults: In the LIM group, neutrophil counts were reduced versus SMC during extracorporeal immune therapy. After 72 hours, the haemodynamic parameters MAP and cardiac output (CO) were significantly better in the LIM group. Histological analyses showed reduction of shock-related neutrophil

tissue infiltration in the LIM group, especially in the lungs. Lower amounts of apoptotic cells and lipid peroxidation were found in organs after LIM treatment.\n\nConclusions: Transient Fas-directed extracorporeal immune therapy may protect from posthemorrhagic neutrophil selleck chemical tissue infiltration and tissue damage.”
“Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use – of which naturopathy constitutes a significant proportion – accounts for approximately half of all health consultations and half of out-of-pocket expenditure in Australia. Data also suggest CAM use is highest amongst rural Australians. Unfortunately little is known about the grassroots reality of naturopathy or other CAM use in rural regions.\n\nMethods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 naturopaths practising in the Darling Downs region of South-East Queensland to assess their perceptions and experiences of rural patients and demand for their services.\n\nResults: Naturopaths described strong demand in rural areas for their services and perceived much of this demand as attributable to cultural traits in rural communities that served as pull factors for their naturopathic services.

27 and P = 0 11, respectively) Distance to gas wells was also th

27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P < 0.01). For ethane concentrations, distance to gas wells was

the only statistically significant factor (P < 0.005). Isotopic signatures (delta C-13-CH4, delta C-13-C2H6, and delta H-2-CH4), hydrocarbon ratios (methane to ethane and propane), and the ratio of the noble gas He-4 to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living buy β-Nicotinamide < 1 km from gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.”
“Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy and cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Approximately half of the patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer ultimately die of the condition. Death from colorectal cancer can be prevented by early detection, but unfortunately presentation is often late, with a worse prognosis. Screening by fecal occult blood testing reduces disease-specific mortality, but there is a need for sensitive and specific noninvasive biomarkers to facilitate detecting the disease, staging it, and predicting the best therapeutic options. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA sequences that have a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. They have significant regulatory

functions in basic cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Evidence suggests that miRNAs may function as both tumor suppressors and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/GSK690693.html oncogenes. The main mechanism for changes in the function of miRNAs in cancer cells is due to aberrant gene expression. Accurate discrimination of miRNA profiles between tumor and normal mucosa in colorectal cancer allows definition of specific expression patterns of miRNAs, giving good potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. MiRNAs expressed in colorectal cancers are also abundantly present and stable in stool and plasma samples. Their extraction from these three sources is feasible and reproducible.

The ease and reliability of determining miRNA profiles in plasma or stool makes them potential molecular markers for colorectal cancer screening. This review summarizes the role miRNAs have in colorectal cancer, highlighting LY2157299 manufacturer particularly the potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in the future treatment of the disease.”
“Background: Studies have shown that the presence of left atrial (LA) fibrosis can be assessed by LA delayed-enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LA DE-CMR) and may be predictive of outcome after ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to test the hypothesis that the amount of LA fibrosis evaluated by DE-CMR correlates with the difficulty of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) ablation.\n\nMethods: Twenty-two consecutive patients (86.