Methionine is converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which acts

Methionine is converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) which acts as a methyl donor contributing to the synthesis of creatine, as well as number of other proteins [2]. Dietary betaine has been shown to increase serum methionine, transmethylation rate and methionine oxidation in healthy men [18], and animals injected with betaine have shown a dose response increase in red blood cell SAM [19]. However, the relationship of betaine ingestion and muscle creatine synthesis in humans has not been established. The improved muscle endurance and the greater quality of Buparlisib repetitions (as reflected by a significantly greater number of repetitions

performed at 90% of subject’s 1-RM) in the squat exercise seen in subjects supplementing with betaine is consistent with benefits typically seen in subjects ingesting creatine [20, 21]. Interestingly, significant improvements were CB-5083 manufacturer realized even after 7-days of supplementation, similar to what one may expect following a loading dose of creatine [22]. However, these ergogenic effects were only seen in the squat exercise and not the bench press exercise. It BAY 1895344 is possible that the larger muscle mass exercise may have been affected to a greater

extent from betaine supplementation than the smaller upper body musculature, or that the experience level of these subjects may have been more focused on upper body training than lower body squat exercises. Previous studies from our laboratory have indicated that performance gains in the squat exercise are often greater in magnitude than that seen in the bench press exercise [23, 24].

This has been suggested to be related to the commonality of the bench press exercise selleck chemicals llc in the initial training program of both competitive and recreational athletes, and the inconsistent use of the squat exercise or poor technique (e.g. lowering to parallel position) used in that exercise during training sessions. The inability to see improvements in power performance from two weeks of betaine supplementation contrasts with results reported by Maresh and colleagues [13]. However, improvements in power performance are often dependent upon these exercises being part of the subjects training program. Similar to previous research examining creatine supplementation, if the specific exercises used to assess power improvements are not part of the subjects training program the ability to see performance improvements may be compromised [20]. This appears to have occurred in this study in that the power exercises were only performed during the testing sessions. Although subjects were expected to still maintain their normal resistance training program during the two-week study, the training program of these subjects did not include bench press throws, plyometric exercises or the Wingate anaerobic power test. Previous research has suggested that betaine supplementation may enhance mood in a clinical population suffering from motor neuron disease [25].

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