However, it is not clear how such a process is carried out by a p

RG7112 manufacturer However, it is not clear how such a process is carried out by a pathogen at its naturally occurring low population density, which would be unlikely to produce adequate levels of functional signals unless these signals were also produced by other organisms and readily accessible in the environment. Ca2+ and autoinducer 2 (AI-2), two widespread and non-specific signaling molecules, are known to be produced by zoosporic oomycetes [19–21]. Ca2+ plays a central role in autonomous encystment, adhesion and germination of cysts

in zoosporic oomycetes [3, 10, 14, Vistusertib datasheet 22–24]. However, it is not considered to be an autoinducer because Ca2+ does not directly trigger cooperative behaviors of zoospores and acts more like a secondary messenger [18]. AI-2 was first detected in bacteria and is utilized for metabolism and quorum sensing in bacteria [25–27]. In the latter process, bacteria respond to these released signaling selleck chemical molecules or autoinducers to coordinate their communal

behavior. Eukaryotes including oomycetes can also produce AI-2 or AI-2-like activities [21, 28–30] although they do not use the LuxS pathway that most bacteria use [31, 32]. Instead, AI-2 is formed spontaneously from D-ribulose-5-phosphate that is synthesized in these eukaryotes from pentose-phosphates by ribose phosphate isomerase (RPI) in the pentose-phosphate pathway [28]. AI-2 has been proposed as a universal signaling molecule in bacteria based on its role in

inter-species signaling and postulated cross-kingdom communication [33–40]. However, the function of AI-2 in eukaryotes has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate Isoconazole the nature of signal molecules in ZFF. Specifically, we identified inter-specific signaling activities of ZFF from four Phytophthora species and one Pythium species. We also assessed the potential of AI-2 along with another known bacterial autoinducer as signal molecules for communication among zoosporic species. Results and Discussion ZFF interspecific stimulation of zoosporic infection Zoospore-free fluids were prepared from suspensions at a density of 104 zoospores ml-1 or higher of Phytophthora nicotianae (ZFFnic), P. capsici (ZFFcap), P. hydropathica (ZFFhyd), P. sojae (ZFFsoj) and Pythium aphanidermatum (ZFFaph) and evaluated in three phytopathosystems. Inoculation of annual vinca (Catharanthus roseus) with suspensions containing an average of one zoospore of P. nicotianae in any of the four ZFFs resulted in significantly higher infection (P < 0.001) compared to the control (SDW). Specifically, percentages of sites infected were 39%, 21%, 11%, and 15% for ZFFaph, ZFFhyd, ZFFnic, and ZFFsoj, respectively compared to 3% for SDW (Figure 1A). Similarly, ZFFaph, ZFFhyd, ZFFnic and ZFFsoj stimulated infection of lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus) by P. sojae (Figure 1B), while ZFFcap and ZFFsoj stimulated infection of soybean (Glycine max) by P. sojae (Figure 1C).

Comments are closed.