influenza coverage estimates were similar between AIAN and White respondents (68.1% vs 69.5%), but pneumococcal vaccination was lower among AIAN respondents (58.1% vs 67.2%; P<.01). After multivariable adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported coverage for both vaccines was statistically similar between AIAN and White adults.\n\nConclusions. Although there was no disparity in influenza coverage, pneumococcal coverage was lower among AIAN than among White respondents, probably because MDV3100 Endocrinology & Hormones inhibitor of sociodemographic risk factors. Regional variation indicates a need to monitor coverage and target interventions to reduce disparities within geographically and culturally diverse
subpopulations of AIAN persons.”
“Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that differentiate into all cell types of the organism. In adult, multipotent tissue-specific stem cells undergo multi-lineage differentiation to preserve normal tissue homeostasis and repair potential injuries. The maintenance of stem cells and their differentiation follows defined epigenetic programs, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and small non-coding RNAs that result in gene expression, morphologic and functional changes. Recently, Nutlin-3 we reported for the first time the comprehensive characterization of the in vivo gene expression and DNA methylation profiles of four distinct populations of normal human mammary epithelial cells and the identification of cell type-specific DNA methylation patterns with clinical relevance. Our results together with other studies LB-100 cell line suggest an important role for epigenetic regulation in stem cell self-renewal, pluripotency and differentiation, and imply that abnormalities in these processes may play a role in tumor initiation and progression.”
“P>Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular
pathogen that infects a large diversity of host cells, including macrophages. To avoid the phagosome microbicidal environment, L. monocytogenes secretes a pore-forming toxin (listeriolysin O, LLO) that releases the bacterium into the cytoplasm. We hypothesized that the alpha-defensins (HNPs) and/or humanized theta-defensin (RC-1) peptides produced by human and non-human primate neutrophils, respectively, cooperate with macrophages to control L. monocytogenes infection. Our results establish that HNP-1 and RC-1 enable macrophages to control L. monocytogenes intracellular growth by inhibiting phagosomal escape, as a consequence, bacteria remain trapped in a LAMP-1-positive phagosome. Importantly, HNP-1 interaction with macrophages and RC-1 interaction with bacteria are required to prevent macrophage infection. In accordance with these results, RC-1 is a more potent anti-listerial peptide than HNP-1 and HNP-1 is acquired by macrophages and trafficked to the phagocytosed bacteria.