Gene flow can constrain local adaptation by eroding differentiati

Gene flow can constrain local adaptation by eroding differentiation driven by natural selection, or local adaptation can itself constrain gene flow through ARS-1620 selection against maladapted immigrants. Here we test for evidence that natural selection constrains gene flow among populations of a widespread passerine bird (Zonotrichia capensis) that are distributed along an elevational gradient in the Peruvian Andes. Using multilocus sequences and microsatellites screened in 142 individuals collected along a series of replicate transects, we found that mitochondrial gene flow was significantly reduced along elevational

transects relative to latitudinal control transects. Nuclear gene flow, however, was not similarly reduced. Clines in mitochondrial haplotype frequency were strongly associated with transitions in environmental variables along the elevational transects, but this association was not observed for the nuclear markers. These results suggest that natural selection constrains mitochondrial gene flow along elevational gradients and that the mitonuclear discrepancy may be due to local adaptation of mitochondrial haplotypes.”
“The model of melamine molecules ordering into planar honeycomb and closed packed phases is proposed.

To account for the “side-to-side” melamine-melamine molecular interactions, we use the version of the antiferromagnetic Blume-Capel model with see more some exclusions. The model is solved by Monte Carlo calculations on a triangular lattice, a slightly rescaled version of Au(111) and Ag(111) lattices on which the main experimental data are obtained. The ordered phases are formed when mutual distance between the centers of molecules is within sixth and seventh nearest neighbor distances of rescaled substrate lattice. CHIR98014 mouse We obtain the ground state phase diagram with honeycomb and three closed-packed phases and density-temperature phase diagram with three pure phases (gas, honeycomb, and close-packed) and their two-phase coexistences. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Aim: To design and synthese a novel class

of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1) inhibitors, featuring the (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)pyridine and (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)thiazole framework.\n\nMethods: Our initial lead 4-(phenylsulfonamido-methyl)benzamides were modified. Inhibition of human and mouse 11 beta-HSD1 enzymatic activities by the new compounds was determined by a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) using microsomes containing 11 beta-HSD1.\n\nResults: Sixteen new compounds (6a-6h, 7a-7h) were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. In dose-response studies, several compounds showed strong inhibitory activities with IC(50) values at nanomolar or low nanomolar concentrations. Structure-activity relationships are also discussed with respect to molecular docking results.\n\nConclusion: This study provides two promising new templates for 11 beta-HSD1 inhibitors.

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