, 1997) In order to define motifs in the S solfataricus 16S/23S

, 1997). In order to define motifs in the S. solfataricus 16S/23S rRNA gene core promoter possibly important for regulation, the 42-bp sequence was compared with the core promoters from S. solfataricus ribosomal

protein genes (http://archaea.ucsc.edu). The only clearly conserved motifs are the TATA box and a potential BRE (Fig. 4a) and these are not conserved with the rRNA promoter (Fig. 4b). Moreover, the BRE sequence is noncanonical (Bartlett, 2005) and the distance between the transcription start site and the TATA box is considerably longer in the rRNA promoters (Fig. 4b), indicating that transcription may be differently regulated between rRNA and ribosomal protein genes. There is also no obviously conserved PPE or downstream BRE, unlike the minimal selleck products arabinose-regulated promoters analyzed in vivo (Peng et al., 2009) although this region is rich in A/T base pairs and mutations therein reduced activity

of the 16S/23SrRNA gene promoter in vitro (Hain et al., 1992). To determine whether there was an rRNA-specific regulatory motif, predicted rRNA promoters from other Sulfolobus species were compared. The rRNA promoter is identical in S. solfataricus, S. shibatae, and seven ‘S. islandicus’ genomes (Reno et al., 2009), but is less conserved in S. acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus tokodaii (Durovic & Dennis, 1994; Kawarabayasi et al., 2001;Fig. 4). Nonetheless, a conserved possible regulatory Ribociclib sequence between −9 and −14, ‘5′-ACAANA-3′’, was identified and remains to be tested. To eliminate the possibility that differences in β-galactosidase activity were due to gene dosage effects, the relative or absolute copy numbers of the lacS gene in each sample were determined by Southern hybridization or qPCR, respectively. The relative copy number was calculated as the ratio of the signal from the stable vector-borne lacS gene to the disrupted chromosomal lacS gene (Fig. S2). The average

relative vector copy number per chromosome selleck is approximately one (Fig. S2). This is consistent with evidence that the number of plaque-forming units (PFU) per cell of SSV1-based shuttle vectors in Sulfolobus cultures remains relatively constant at 1.5 PFU per cell (Stedman et al., 1999). The relative lacS copy number was sometimes less than one, suggesting that these cultures contained a mixture of infected and noninfected cells (Fig. S2). When normalized for the relative lacS copy number, relative β-galactosidase activities did not change drastically (Fig. 2). For growth-phase dependent experiments, the absolute copy number of each vector in each culture in all growth phases was determined by qPCR (Fig. S3 and Table S1). Again, this normalization did not drastically change the results (Fig. 3a and b).

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